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20 Cards in this Set

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What is the enzyme that unwinds DNA during replication?
DNA Helicase
What is the enzyme that attaches to DNA to tell other enzymes where to begin?
RNA Primase
What is the enzyme that grabs new nucleotides and puts them in their proper place?
DNA Polymerase
What is the leading strand?
It is the strand of DNA that runs 5 prime to 3 prime.
What is the lagging strand?
It is the strand of DNA that runs 3 prime to 5 prime
What is an Okazaki fragment?
It is the section of the lagging strand between RNA primases that gets pulled backwards through DNA polymerase.
Why are there Okazaki fragments?
Because the DNA polymerase only runs 5' to 3'. The fragments are needed to let the strand run backwards through the polymerase.
What is the enzyme that takes the primers off of the new strands?
Ligase--it takes the RNA primase off and replaces the missing nucleotides.
What is the enzyme that proofreads the new strands of DNA?
DNA polymerase (It does two jobs).
Why does DNA need to duplicate?
Because when cells divide each new cell needs its own copy of DNA.
When does DNA replicate?
DNA replicates just before chromosomes form during Mitosis.
Where does DNA replication happen in Eukaryotes?
In the nucleoplasm of the nucleus.
Where does DNA replication happen in Prokaryotes?
In the cytoplasm because they don't have a nucleus.
What materials are needed for DNA replication?
The original strand of DNA, the enzymes, and lots of nucleotides.
What three things make up a nucleotide?
A phosphate, a sugar (in DNA it is deoxyribose) and nitrogenous bases (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine).
What are the four enzymes used in DNA replication?
Helicase, RNA Primase, DNA polymerase, and Ligase.
What kind of bonds does Helicase break?
Hydrogen bonds.
What direction does DNA polymerase travel?
From the 5 prime to the 3 prime direction.
What does 5 prime mean?
It means the sugar is pointing up on the page. The number 5 carbon is facing up.
What kinds of bonds hold the nucleotides together?
Covalent bonds.