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85 Cards in this Set

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You will be asked to identify nine items on your motorcycle before the actual riding portion of the test. The items you will be asked to identify are the:

Starter

Kill switch

Clutch

Throttle

Gear selector

Dimmer switch

Brakes

Turn signals

Horn
The motorcycle skills test allows the rider to demonstrate his/her ability
to control the motorcycle through several skills tests. The motorcycle skills test is
a pass/fail test.
You will be asked to demonstrate the following four skills, which include
tracking paths (the area within and including the tracking lines):

Serpentine Ride – Beginning on the right of the first cone, you will weave through a row of five traffic cones. At the end of the row of cones you will begin the circle ride.

Circle Ride – Ride around the circle twice in a clockwise direction
keeping the front wheel within the tracking path, return to the starting point weaving once more through the row of five cones.

Slow Ride – Ride slowly between
two parallel lines keeping the front tire within the tracking path. At the end of the tracking path, begin the circle ride twice in a counterclockwise direction or by turning right into the circle tracking path.

Gear Shift Ride – Ride in a straight path, shifting gears up, then down, complete a U-turn and return, shifting gears up, then down and end in a smooth stop at the starting point.
PrePariNG to riDe
What you do before you start a trip goes a long way toward determining whether you’ll get where you want to go safely. Before starting any trip, a safe rider makes a point to:

Wear the right gear.

Become familiar with the motorcycle.

Check the motorcycle equipment.

Be a responsible rider.
Wearing the right gear
When you ride, your gear is “right” if it protects you. In any crash, you have a far better chance of avoiding serious injury when you wear:

An approved helmet.

Face or eye protection.

Protective clothing.
Crashes can occur—particularly among new riders. Many crashes result in
head or neck injuries with head injuries being far more common.
All operators and passengers must wear an
approved safety helmet when riding on a motorcycle, motor-driven cycle, motorized bicycle, or motorized scooter.
No matter what your speed in a crash, if you are wearing a helmet you are
three times more likely to survive a head injury than if you aren’t wearing one.
Whichever style you choose, you get the most protection by making sure the helmet:
Meets U.S. Department of Transportation
(DOT) and state safety standards.

Has the DOT lettering on the back
of the helmet for your safety.

NOTE: The DOT lettering should not be a stick-on label or easily removed.

Fits snugly, all the way around.

Has no obvious defects such as cracks, loose padding or frayed straps.
Keep your helmet securely fastened on your head when you ride. Otherwise,
if you are involved in a crash, it’s likely to fly off your head before it gets a chance to protect you.
Goggles protect your eyes, but they
don’t protect the rest of your face as a face shield does. A windshield is not a substitute for a face shield or goggles. Most windshields will not protect youreyesfrom the wind. Neither
will eyeglasses or sunglasses. Glasses won’t keep your eyes from watering, and they might blow off when you turn your head.
To be effective, eye or face shield protection must:

Be free of scratches.

Be resistant to punctures.

Give a clear view to either side.
Clothing
The right clothing...
protects you in a collision. It also provides comfort, as well as protection from heat, cold, debris, and the hot and moving parts of the motorcycle.

Jacket and pants should cover arms and legs completely. They should fit snugly enough to keep from flapping in the wind, but still allow you to move freely. Leather or a sturdy synthetic material offers the most protection. Wear a jacket even in warm weather to prevent dehydration. Many are designed to protect without getting you overheated, even on summer days.

Boots or shoes should be high and sturdy enough to cover your ankles and support them. Soles should be made of hard, durable, slip-resistant material. The heels should be short so they do not catch on rough surfaces. Tuck in laces so they won’t catch on your motorcycle.

Gloves allow a better grip and help protect your hands. Your gloves should be made of leather
or similar durable material.
In cold or wet weather, your clothes...
should keep you warm and dry, as well as protect you from injury. You cannot control a motorcycle well if you are numb. Riding for long periods in cold weather can cause severe chill and fatigue. A winter jacket should resist wind and fit snugly at the neck, wrists, and waist. Good-quality rain suits designed for motorcycle riding resist tearing apart or ballooning up at high speeds.
There are many things on the highway
that can cause you trouble. Your motorcycle should not be one of them. To make sure that your motorcycle won’t let you down:

Start with the right motorcycle for you.

Read the owner’s manual first.

Be familiar with the motorcycle controls.

Check the motorcycle before every ride.

Keep it in safe riding condition between rides.

Avoid add-ons and modifications that make your motorcycle harder to handle.
First, make sure your motorcycle “fits” you. Your feet should reach the ground while you are seated on the motorcycle.
At minimum, your street-legal motorcycle
must have:

Tires with sufficient tread for safe operation.

Headlight, taillight, brake light, and turn signals.

Front and rear brakes.

A horn and two mirrors.
Be completely familiar with the motorcycle before you take it out on the street.
If you use an unfamiliar motorcycle:
Make all the checks you would on your own motorcycle.

Find out where everything is, particularly the turn signals, horn, headlight switch, fuel-supply valve, and engine cut-off switch. You should be able to find them without having to look for them.

Know the gear pattern. Work the throttle, clutch and brakes a few times before you start riding. All controls react a little differently.

Ride very cautiously and be aware of your surroundings. Accelerate gently, take turns more slowly, and leave extra room for stopping.
Check Your Motorcycle
A motorcycle needs more frequent attention than a car. If something is wrong with the motorcycle,you’ll want to find out about it before you get in traffic. Make the following checks before every ride:

Tires—Check the air pressure, general wear, and tread.

Fluids—Oil and fluid levels. At a minimum, check hydraulic fluids and coolants weekly. Look under the motorcycle for signs of an oil or gas leak.

Headlights and Taillight— Check them both. Test your switch to make sure both high and low beams work.

TurnSignals—Turn onbothright and left turn signals. Make sure all lights work properly.

Brake Light—Try both brake controls and make sure each one turns on the brake light.
Once you are on the motorcycle, complete the following checks before
starting out:

ClutchandThrottle—Make sure they work smoothly. The throttle should snap back when you let go. The clutch should feel tight and smooth.

Mirrors—Clean and adjust both mirrors before starting. Adjust each mirror so you can see the lane behind and as much as possible of the lane next to you. When properly adjusted, a mirror may show the edge of your arm or shoulder—but it’s the road behind and to the side that is most important.

Brakes—Try the front and rear brake levers one at a time. Make sure each one feels firm and holds the motorcycle when the brake is fully applied.
• Horn—Make sure the horn
works.
In addition to the checks before every
trip, check the following items at least once a week:
Wheels, cables, fasteners, and fluids. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations.
Crashes are fairly common among new riders. Riding an unfamiliar motorcycle adds to the problem. Get familiar with any motorcycle that is new to you, preferably in a controlled area. (No matter how experienced you may be, ride extra carefully on any motorcycle that is new or unfamiliar to you.) Remember
that
more than half of all crashes occur on motorcycles ridden by riders with less than six months experience.
As a rider, you can’t be sure that others will see you or yield the right
way. To reduce the chances of a crash:

Be visible. Wear proper clothing, use your headlight, and ride in the best lane position to see and be seen.

Communicate your intentions. Use the proper signals, brake light, and lane position.

Maintain an adequate space cushion. Allow yourself enough space when following, being followed,
lane sharing, passing, and being passed.

Scan yourpath of travel. Look at least 10 to 15 seconds ahead.

Identify and separate multiple hazards.

Be prepared to act. Remain alert and know how to carry out proper crash-avoidance skills.
Body Position
To control a motorcycle well:
Posture—Sit so you can use your arms to steer themotorcyclerather than to hold yourself up.

Seat—Sit far enough forward so your arms are slightly bent when
holding the handlegrips. Bending your arms permits you to press on the handlebars without having to stretch.

Hands—Hold the handlegrips firmly. Start with your right wrist flat so you won’t accidentally use too much throttle. Also, adjust the handlebars so your hands are even with or below your elbows. This allows you to use the proper muscles for precision steering.

Knees—Keep your knees against the gas tank to help with your balance
as you turn the motorcycle.

Feet—Keep your feet firmly on the footpegs for balance. Don’t drag your feet or you could be injured and lose control of the motorcycle. Keep your feet near the controls. Also, don’t point your toes downward—they may get caught between the road and the footpegs.
Shift down through thegears with the...
clutch as you slow or stop.
Remain in first gear while stopped so...
you can move out quickly if needed.
Ride slowly enough when you shift into a lower gear or
the motorcycle will lurch and the rear wheel may skid.
When riding downhill or shifting
into first gear you may need...
to slow to downshift safely. Work toward a smooth, even clutch release especially when downshifting.
It is best to change gearsbefore starting
a turn. However, sometimes you may need to shift while in the turn. Remember...
to shift smoothly because a sudden change in power to the rear wheel can cause a skid.
Your motorcycle has two brakes:
one each for the front and rearwheel.Use both brakes at the same time. The front brake is more powerful and can provide at least three-quarters of your total stopping power. The front brake is safe to use when you use it properly.
Braking
REMEMBER:
Use both brakes every time you slow or stop. Using both brakes for “normal” stops permits you to develop the proper habit and skill of using both brakes properly,
which you may need in an emergency. Squeeze the front brake and press down on the rear brake. Grabbing at the front brake or jamming down on the rear brake can cause the brakes to lock and result in control problems.

If you know the technique, using both brakes in a turn is possible, although it should be done very carefully. When you lean the motorcycle, some of the traction is used for cornering and less traction is available for stopping.
A skid can occur if you apply too much brake. Also, using the front brake incorrectly on a slippery surface may be hazardous. Use caution and squeeze the brake lever, never “grab” it.
• Some motorcycles have integrated
braking systems that link the front and rear brakes together when you apply the rear brake pedal. (Consult your owner’s manual.)
Turning
Riders often try to take curves or turns too fast. When they can’t hold the turn, they end up crossing
into another lane of traffic or going off the road. Or, they overreact and brake too hard causing a skid and loss of control. Approach turns and curves with caution.
Use four steps for better control:
1.
Slow—Reduce your speed before the turn by closing the throttle and, if necessary, applying both brakes.
2.
Look—Look through the turn to where you want to go. Turn only your head, not your shoulders, and keep your eyes level with the horizon.
3.
Press—To turn, the motorcycle must lean. To lean the motorcycle, press on the handlegrip in the direction
of the turn. Press left—lean left—go left. Press right—lean right—go right. Higher speeds and/or tighter turns require the motorcycle to lean more.
- 12 4.
Roll—Roll on the throttle through the turn to stabilize suspension. Maintain steady speed or accelerate
gradually through the turn. This will help keep the motorcycle stable.
In normal turns, the rider and the motorcycle should lean together at the same angle.
In slow tight turns, the rider should keep his/her body straight and only lean the motorcycle.
The best protection you can have is distance—a “cushion of space”—all around your motorcycle. If someone
else makes a mistake, distance gives you:

Time to react.

Space to maneuver.
Lane Positions
In some ways the size of the motorcycle
can work to your advantage. Each traffic lane gives a motorcycle three paths of travel, as indicated in the illustration.
Your lane position should:
• Increase your ability to see and be seen.
Graphic of motorcycle lane positions.

Avoid others’ blind spots.

Protect your lane from other drivers.

Communicate your intentions.

Help you avoid wind blasts from other vehicles.

Provide an escape route.
Select the appropriate lane position to maximize your space cushion and
make yourself more visible to others on the road.
position” for riders in which to be seen and to maintain a space cushion around the motorcycle. Position yourself in the lane that allows the most visibility and space around you. Change your lane position as traffic situations change. Ride in paths 2 or 3 if vehicles and other potential problems are on your left side. If vehicles are on both sides of you, the center of the lane (path 2) is usually the best option.
The oily strip in the center portion of the lane is usually no more
than two feet wide. Unless the road is wet, the average oily center strip permits adequate traction on which to ride safely. You can ride just to the left or right of the oily strip and still be within the center portion of the traffic lane. Avoid riding on oil and grease buildups which are usually found at busy intersections or toll booths. Try to travel in the most heavily traveled portion of the traffic lane (path 1 or 3) where other vehicles tires have traveled.
Select the appropriate lane position to maximize your space cushion and
make yourself more visible to others on the road.
position” for riders in which to be seen and to maintain a space cushion around the motorcycle. Position yourself in the lane that allows the most visibility and space around you. Change your lane position as traffic situations change. Ride in paths 2 or 3 if vehicles and other potential problems are on your left side. If vehicles are on both sides of you, the center of the lane (path 2) is usually the best option.
The oily strip in the center portion of the lane is usually no more
than two feet wide. Unless the road is wet, the average oily center strip permits adequate traction on which to ride safely. You can ride just to the left or right of the oily strip and still be within the center portion of the traffic lane. Avoid riding on oil and grease buildups which are usually found at busy intersections or toll booths. Try to travel in the most heavily traveled portion of the traffic lane (path 1 or 3) where other vehicles tires have traveled.
Shifting Gears
There is more to shifting gears than simply getting the motorcycle to pick up speed smoothly. Learning to use the gears when downshifting, turning,
or starting on hills is important for safe motorcycle operation.
Shift down through thegears
with the clutch as you slow or stop.
Remain in first gear while stoppedCars Alongside
Do not ride next to passenger vehicles
or trucks in other lanes if you don’t have to because
so you can move out quickly if needed.
Ride slowly enough when you shift into a lower gear or
the motorcycle will lurch and the rear wheel may skid.
When riding downhill or shift-
11 ing
into first gear
you may need to slow to downshift safely.
Work toward a smooth, even clutch release especially when
downshifting.
It is best to change gears before
starting a turn.
sometimes you may need to shift while
in the turn.
Merging Cars
Drivers on an entrance ramp may not see you on the highway. Give them plenty of room. Change to another lane if one is open. If there is no room for a lane change,
adjust your speed to open up space for the merging driver.
search, evaluate, anD execute (see)
Experienced riders remain aware of what is going on around them. They improve their riding strategy by using SEE,
a three-step process for making appropriate judgments and applying them correctly in different traffic situations. SEE stands for: Search, Evaluate, and Execute.
Cars Alongside
Do not ride next to passenger vehicles
or trucks in other lanes if you don’t have to because
you might be in the driver’s blind spot. The driver could change lanes without warning. Also, vehicles in the next lane can block your escape if you come upon danger in your own lane. Speed up or drop back to find a place clear of traffic on both sides.
Actively search ahead, to the sides, and behind to help you avoid potential
hazards. How you search and how much time and space you have, can eliminate or reduce harm. Focus even more on
finding potential escape routes in or around intersections,
shopping areas, or school and construction zones.
Evaluate

(SEE)
Think about how hazards can create risks for you. Anticipate potential problems and have a plan to reduce risks.

Road and surface characteristics such as potholes, guardrails, bridges, telephone poles and trees won’t move into your path but may influence your riding strategy.

Traffic control devices such as traffic signals, regulatory signs, warning signs, and pavement markings will help you evaluate circumstances ahead.

Vehicles and other traffic may move into your path and increase the likelihood of a crash.
Think about your time and space requirements in order to maintain a margin of safety. You must leave yourself time to react if an emergency
arises.
Execute

(SEE)
Carry out your decision. To create more space and minimize harm from any hazard:

Communicate your presence with lights and/or your horn.

Adjust your speed by accelerating, stopping, or slowing.
• Adjust your lane position and/
or direction of travel.
Search

(SEE)
Actively search ahead, to the sides, and behind to help you avoid potential hazards. How you search and how much time and space you have, can eliminate or reduce harm. Focus even more on finding potential escape routes in or around intersections, shopping areas, or school and construction zones. Search for factors such as:

Oncoming traffic that may turn left in front of you.

Traffic coming from either the left, right, or behind.

Hazardous road conditions.
Apply the old saying “one step at a time” to handle two or more hazards.
Adjust your speed so you can deal with each hazard separately. Then deal with them one at a time as single hazards. Decision-making becomes more complex with three or more hazards. Weigh the consequences of each and give equal distance to the hazards.
In high-risk areas, such as intersections,
shopping areas, or school and construction zones, cover
cover the clutch and both brakes to reduce your reaction
time.
The greatest potential for conflict between you and other traffic is
at intersections. An intersection is anywhere traffic may cross your path. It can be in the middle of an urban area or at a driveway on a residential street.
Over one-half of motorcycle/ passenger vehicle crashes are caused
by drivers entering a rider’s right-of way.
Vehicles that turn left in front of you, including those illegally turning left from the wrong lane, and cars on
streets that pull into your lane, are
the biggest dangers. Your use of SEE at intersections is critical.
There are no guarantees that others will see you. Never count on “eye contact” as
a sign that a driver will yield to you. Too often, a driver can look right at a motorcyclist and still fail to “see” him/her. The only eyes thatyou can count on are your own.
If a vehicle can enter your path,
assume that it will. Good riders are always “looking for trouble”—not to get into it, but to stay out of it.
Increase your chances of being seen at intersections...
Ride with your headlight on in a lane position that provides you with the best view of oncoming traffic.

Maintain a space cushion around your motorcycle that permits you to take evasive action.
As you approach an intersection, select a lane position that increases your visibility to the driver. Cover the clutch and both brakes
to reduce reaction time.
Reduce your speed as you approach an intersection. After entering
the intersection, move away from vehicles preparing to turn. Do not
change speed or position radically.
The driver might think that you are preparing to turn.
Blind Intersections

When you approach a blind intersection,
move to the portion of the lane that brings you into another driver’s field of vision at the earliestpossible moment.
Passing Parked Cars

When passing parked cars,
tay toward the left portion of your lane. This way, you can avoid problems caused by doors opening, drivers getting out of cars, or people stepping
from between cars.
If oncoming traffic is present, it is usually best to
remain in the center portion of the lane to maximize your space cushion.
Parking at the Roadside

Park at a...
90° angle to the curb with the rear wheel touching the curb.
A bigger problem can occur if a driver pulls away from the curb without checking for traffic behind...
Even if the driver looks, he/she may fail to see you.

In either event, the driver might enter your path. Slow down or change lanes to make room for someone to enter.
Vehicles making a sudden U-turn are the most dangerous. They may cut you off entirely, blocking the whole roadway and leaving you with
with no place to go. Since you can’t tell what a driver will do, slow down and get the driver’s attention. Sound your horn and continue with caution.
Parking at the Roadside
Park at a 90° angle to the curb with the rear wheel touching the curb.
Graphic of parked motorcycle pulling in front moving car.
Graphic of parked motorcycle pulling in front moving car.Graphic of parked motorcycle pulling in front moving car.Graphic of parked motorcycle pulling in front moving car.Graphic of parked motorcycle pulling in front moving car.Graphic of parked motorcycle pulling in front moving car.

[Graphic of parked motorcycle pulling in front moving car.]
Clothing
Most crashes occur in broad daylight.
Wear brightly-colored clothing to increase your chances of being seen.
Remember, your body is half of the visible surface area of the rider/motorcycle unit.
Bright orange, red, yellow, or green jackets or vests are
the best for being seen. Brightly colored helmets can also help others see you.
Reflective material on a vest and on the sides of the helmet will help drivers
see you from the side. Reflective
material can also be a big help for drivers coming toward you or from behind.
The best way to help others see your motorcycle is
to always keep the headlight on.

Studies show that during the day, a motorcycle with its light on is twice as likely to be noticed.
Using your high beam during
the day and at night
increases the chances that oncoming drivers will see you
Use your high beam if it is legal and safe to do so. When it is foggy,
use the low beam.
Turn Signals
The turn signals on a motorcycle are similar to those on a car. They tell others what you plan to do.
However, due to a rider’s added vulnerability, turn signals are even
Graphic of hand signals from a vehicle driver.
Graphic of hand signals from a vehicle driver.Graphic of hand signals from a vehicle driver.Graphic of hand signals from a vehicle driver.Graphic of hand signals from a vehicle driver.
SLOW or
STOP
more important. Use them anytime you plan to change lanes or turn. Signal your left or right turn during the last 100 feet before reaching the turning point. At highway speeds, it is best to signal at least five seconds before changing lanes. Useyour turn signals even when you think no one else is around. Your turn signals also make
you easier to see. If bright sunlight
makes your turn signal lights hard to see...
use hand signals.
Turn signals

When you enter a freeway, drivers approaching from behind are more likely to see...
your turn signal blinking and make room for you.
Using your turn signals before each turn reduces
confusion and frustration
for the traffic around you.
Once you turn, be sure to turn them off or a driver may pull directly into your path,
thinking you plan to turn again.
If the situation permits, help others notice you by flashing your brake light before you slow down. It is especially important to flash your brake light before you slow:
• For a tight, fast turn off a high-speed highway.

• Where others may not expect it (in the middle of a block or at an alley).

If you are being tailgated, it’s a good idea to flash your brake light before you slow.
Using Your Mirrors
While it’s most important to know what’s happening ahead, you can’t ignore situations behind you. Traffic
conditions change quickly. In order to make safe decisions about how to handle trouble ahead, you
must know what is going on behind
you.
Frequent mirror checks should be part of your normal searching routine.
Make a special point of using your mirrors:
When you are stopped at an intersection. Watch cars coming up from behind. If the driver isn’t paying attention, he could be on top of you before he sees you.
• Before you change lanes. Make sure no one is about to pass you
.
• Before you slow down. The driver behind you may not expect you to slow, or may be unsure about where you will slow.

For example, you signal a turn and the driver thinks you plan to turn at a distant intersection, rather than at a nearer driveway.
Some motorcycles have rounded (convex) mirrors. These mirrors provide a wider view of the road behind than flat mirrors. They also make cars seem farther away than they really are. If you are not used to convex mirrors, you can get familiar with them by:
• Picking out a parked car in your mirror (while you are stopped).

• Forming a mental image of how far away it is.

• Then, turning around and looking to see how close you came.

• Practicing with your mirrors until you become a good judge of distance.

• Allowing extra distance before you change lanes.
Three factors play a major part in determining BAC:
• The amount of alcohol you consume.
• How fast you drink.
• Your body weight.
BAC
Blood alcohol concentration
Head Checks
Checking your mirrors is not enough. Motorcycles have “blind spots” just like other vehicles. Before you change lanes,
turn your head and check that lane for other vehicles.
On a road with several lanes, check the far lane and the one next to you. A driver in the distant lane may
drive into the same space you plan to take.
Frequent head checks should be part of your normal scanning routine. Only by knowing what is happening all around,
can you be fully prepared to deal with it
of motorcycle blind spots.
Horn
Be ready to use your horn to get
someone’s attention quickly. It is a good idea to give a quick beep before passing anyone that may move into your lane.
Here are some situations:
• A driver in the lane next to you is driving too closely to the vehicle ahead and may want to pass.

• A driver is seated in a parked car ahead.

• Someone is in the street riding a
bicycle or walking.

In an emergency, press the horn button
loud and long. Be ready to stop or swerve away from the danger.
Remember that a motorcycle’s horn isn’t as loud as a car’s, so use it, but don’t rely on it. Other strategies may be appropriate along with the horn.
Riding at Night
At night it is harder for you to see and be seen. Picking your motorcycle’s headlight or taillight out of the other lights is not easy for drivers. To make up for this, you should:

Reduce Your Speed. Ride even slower than you would during the day—particularly on roads you don’t know well. This increases
your chances of avoiding a hazard.

Increase Distance . Distances are harder to judge at night than during the day. Your eyes rely upon shadows and light contraststo determine how far away an object is and how fast it is coming.
These contrasts are missing or distorted at night. Open up a three-second or more following distance. Allow more distance to pass and be passed.

Use the Car Ahead. The headlights
of the car ahead can give you a better view of the road than your high beam. Taillights bouncing
up and down can alert you to bumps or rough pavement.

Use Your High Beam. Get all the light you can. Use your high beam whenever you are not following or approaching another vehicle. Be visible. Wear reflective materials when riding at night.

Be Flexible about lane position. Change to the portion of the lane that helps you see, be seen, and keep an adequate space cushion.