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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where are phosphatidylcholine, glycolipids, and sphingomyelin found in the membrane?
extracellular side
What are the non-phospholipid components that make up the membrane?
cholesterol esters to stiffen membrane
membrane proteins (transporters, anchors, receptors, enzymes
Distinguish btw. glycoproteins and proteoglycans
glycoproteins: proteins on extracellular side bound to short sugars (oligosaccharides) or to long sugars (proteoglycans)
what can cross membrane?
hydrophobic: 02, N2, CO2, benzene
small uncharged polar: H20, glycerol, ethanol
what can't cross membrane?
ions, uncharged polar: aa, glucose, nucleotides
Describe the structure of clathrin and what it binds to
3 light chains and 3 hard chains; don't need ATP to form
binds to adaptin
Describe the process of pinocytosis
cargo selectin with adaptin, take off clathrin coat, fuse with endosome
early endosome: recylcing, no acid hydrolases, pH6
late endosome: talk to Golgi, acid hydrolase and H+ ATPase
lysosome: st
Describe the process of phagocytosis
macrophages and neutrophils have receptors that form pseudopodia; due to changes in actin
binds to opsinized particle
becomes phagosome
fuses with lysosome to become phagolysosome
Describe the process of autophagy
ER membrane engulfs organelle and fuse with lysosome
What are the two methods used to identify lysosomes?
Gomori acid: histochemical technique: precipitate metal goes from black to colorless
or via Immunocytochemistry: antichicken LAMP-1 or anti-mouse LAMP-1
Discuss what you know about actin:
made up of G actins, bound to ATP, 2 ropes wound together, 6-8nm, anchored to integrins for traction,provides cytoskeleton for macrophages, RBC, microvilli, contractile rings in mitosis, smooth musle contractile stuff, filopodia, lammellipodia
What are the functions of actin binding proteins?
sequesters G-actin to stop polym
imp for nucleation steps
cross-linking for cell shape (ie, spectrin and ankyrin)
motor protein
capping, and cell adhesion molecules
What disrupts actin?
cytochalasin B and D prevents polymerization
phalloidin prevents depolymerization
Discuss Microtubule structure and function
serve as highways for transport in endocytosis (endosome to late endosome)
makes up cilia
made up of 13 dimeric subunits of tubulin; hollow tube;
size: 20-25nm
found from MTOC
uses GTP hydrolysis
@ nucleation sites: see gamma-tubulin rings
What are functions of micrototubule associated proteins?
capping proteins
motor proteins: kinesin and dynein
What disrupts filaments?
colchinine and vinblastine prevents polymerization
taxol: stabilizes polymerization
Describe structure/function of intermediates?
mainly to provide structural support
found in connections between cells in hemidesmosomes
made up of tetramer of 2 coiled-coil dimers (each with conserved alpha helical region)
one filament made up of 2 tetramers packed together
What are the types of intermediate filaments?
lamins in nucleus
keratin in epithelial
vimentin in connective tissue
desmin in skeletal muscle
GFAP in glial cells
neurofilament in neurons