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39 Cards in this Set

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Majority
involves race, ethnicity, religion, etc.
• White male protestant, 40-70 years old, with no disabilities
• Have power
• Numbers don’t matter
• Can make decisions and law
Characteristics of Minority Members
1. Membership is involuntary.
2. Members experience unique treatment.
3. Members marry other members of their group
4. Members have physical or cultural traits that distinguish them from others not of their group
5. Members are aware of their subordinate status and knowledge leads to strong sense of solidarity
Solidarity
we vs. them, unique conscious of us
Prejudice
learned negative attitude or belief
Discrimination
any behavior or act of prejudice against an individual or group.
Tools to eliminate prejudice:
- Utilize the mass media to educate people
- Intergroup contact – take people of different groups and force them to have contact
Eliminate Discrimination: (Tools)
- Institutional forms
- Affirmative Action – category of people that history has discriminated against
3 Types of Prejudice:
1. Cognitive – Thoughts and beliefs
2. Conntive – Desire to discriminate
3. Affective – Feelings of life
4. Class prejudice – most prevalent in USA
Racism
Attitude, belief, behavior, or institutional arrangement that tends to favor or down grade an individual or group based on physical and or cultural traits.
3 Racial Groups
• Negroid – Dark skin, oily hair, found near equator
• Caucasoid – White, thin hair, small gap between eyes, found in North and South
• Mongoloid – Asians, wide and flat bridge of nose, found in the East
Ethnic Group
People who are distinguishable from a cultural characteristic’s
• Religion, Geography, etc.
Ethnicity By the 4 L’s
1. Land
2. Language
3. Leadership
4. Lifestyle
Norms
are guidelines for behavior in a society
3 Types of Norms
1. Folkways – traditions we abide by in society. i.e., Hand shake
2. Mores – Moral connotations
3. Laws – codified norms which are punishable if violated
Institutional Racism
Arrangement and practices in social organizations and their affiliations that tend to favor a particular group based upon their culture and or physical characteristics.
• Example: School, family, media, religion, workplace, etc.
• Example: White males make more than African Americans and women.
• Example: 1g of crack = 100g of cocaine
• Requires Social Change to fix the problem –
Not one person can fix the problem
Must have large number of people to affect change
Genocide
Systematic deliberate attempt to destroy an entire racial, cultural, or political group.
de jure
discrimination required by law
• Example – Laws that ban gay marriage. Laws that separate adult and child acts.
de facto
discrimination against the law but discrimination still happens anyway.
• Equal opportunity employment
Stereotypes
generalizations which are thought to apply to members of a group.
• Individuals don’t fit this definition
Scapegoat
Persons who receives feelings of frustration or aggression even though they are not the source.
Scapegoating
taking out aggression on someone who is not the source of frustration or aggression.
Multiculturalism
society that is make up of many cultural, racial, and or ethnic groups.
3 different types of Multiculturalism
1. Assimilation – (A + b + c = A) Thought that b and c are assimilated into A
2. Amalgamation – (A + B + C = D) Thought that A,B,C become something new, D
3. Cultural Pluralism – (A + B + C = A + B + C) Thought that a condition in which minority groups participate fully in the dominant society, yet maintain their cultural differences.
Ethnocentrism
Judging another culture by one’s own culture’s standard’s
• Example: England drives on the wrong side of the road
• Example: Judging other religions by your own religion
Cultural Relativism
Judging another culture by their own cultural standards.
• Example: When in Rome. (be a Roman)
Racial Formation:
• The process by which people attach meaning and importance to racial categories.
1. Individual Level, racial formation is part of the process by which people formulate their identities.
2. Societal level, racial formation is structural, based on social relations between groups.
Three Reasons why most text books focus on African Americans:
1. In many regions of the country when people think about race, they think African American
2. The U.S. Census Bureau and local local police departments and courts record ethnicity as white-nonwhite or black-white-other.
3. Far more empirical studies have addressed African American experiences with crime and criminal injustice than those of any other group.
The 5 faces of Oppression:
1. Exploitation
2. Marginalization
3. Powerlessness
4. Systemic Violence
5. Cultural Imperialism
1. Exploitation
Is the process whereby the work performed by one group benefits a different group. Example – slavery
2. Marginalization
– Are the people the system of labor cannot or will not use. Is a more common form of social oppression then exploitation. Example – Old people, African Americans and Latinos who are unable to secure jobs, single mothers. Etc.
3. Powerlessness
– The daily situation of those who have little or no control over their working conditions. Example – A food server at McDonald’s
4. Systemic Violence
Random unprovoked attacks on persons or their property that have no purpose other than to damage, humiliate, or destroy the person and that occur because the person is a member of a given social group. Example – Church burning in the south because the members of the church were African American.
5. Cultural Imperialism
Occurs when members of one group, assume that their way of doing something is the only way. The dominant group’s experiences, values, goals, and achievements are taken as normal, as the way things are. Example – when the Native Americans were taken over by the invading Europeans.
How race is socially constructed:
1. Race is not a fixed identity; it is socially decided rather than biologically determined.
2. Racial categories and the meanings attached to race make sense only in their historical context and in light of specific social relations.
3. Racial dynamics are flexible, fluid, and always political.
Serial monogamy
being committed to the person you are with at the time, you will have more than one sexual partner in your lifetime.
Monogamy
Being with one person sexually for your and their entire life.
Polygamy
the practice or condition of having more than one spouse, esp. wife, at one time
• Polygyny – 75% believe in more than 1 woman
• Polygyny
75% believe in more than 1 woman
• Polyandry
1% believe that a female can have more than 1 husband, usually two brothers.