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27 Cards in this Set

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Mannitol
osmotic diureitcs, increase tubular fluid osm producing increased urine flow
use of mannitol
shock, drug OD, decrease intracranial, intraocular pressure
mannitol tox
pulm ed, dehydration
CI: anuria, CHF
Acetazolamide
CAI: causes self limited NaHCO3 diuresis and reduction in total-body HCO3 stores
Acetazolamide uses
glaucoma, urinary alkalinization, met alka, altitude sickness
tox of acetazolamide
hyperCl meta cid, neuropathy, NH3 tox, sulfa allergy
Loops
inhibit cotransport in TAL
abolishes hypertonicity of medulla preventing conc of urine
use of loops
edematous states (CHF, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, pulm ed), HTN, hypercalc
tox of loops
ototox, hypoK, dehydration, allergy (sulfa- furosemide), nephritis, gout
ethacrynic acid
phenoxyacetic acid derivative (not a sulfa) but same as furosemide (loop diuretic)
can be used in hyperuricemia
Hydrochlorothiazide
inhibits NaCl reabsorption in early DT, reducing diluting capacity of nephron
decreased Ca excretion
use of thiazides
CHF, HTN, idiopathic hypercalciuria, nephrotic DI
Tox of thiazides
hypokalemic met acid, hyponatremia, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, hypercalcemia
sulfa allergy
K sparing diuretics
spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride, eplereone
Spirono
comp aldo receptor antag in cortical CT
triampterene and amiloride
block Na channels in CCT
use of K sparing
hyperaldo, K depletion, CHF
tox of K sparing
hyperK, endocrine effects (spironolactone causes gynecomastia, antiandrogen effects)
Increased NaCl
all diuretics
Increased urine K
all except K sparing
increased blood pH
loops, thiazides
decreased blood pH
CAI, K sparing
increase urine Ca
loops
decrease urine Ca
thiazides
ACE inhibitors
inhibit ACE- reducing levels of ATII and preventing inactivation of bradykinin (a potent vasodilator)
renin is increased due to loss of feedback inhib
use of ACEI
HTN, CHF, diabetic renal disease
tox of ACIE
cough, angioedema, proteinuria, taste change, hypotension, pregnancy problems (fetal renal damage), rash, increased renin, lower ATII
hyperkalemia