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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Classes of Diuretics (7)

Aldosterone antagonists
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
Dopamine-receptor agonists
Treatment of essential hypertension
Combination of diuresis, natriuresis and vasodilation are synergistic
Can decrease the dose of antihypertensive agents
Inhibits reabsorption of sodium, chloride ions in the ascending loops of Henle and distal renal tubules
Causes peripheral vasodilation longterm
Thiazides Drugs- [2]
Chlorothiazide, Hydrochlorothiazide
Loop Diuretics

Mobilization of edema fluid due to renal, hepatic or cardiac dysfunction
Treatment of ICP
Treatment of Hypercalcemia
Differential diagnosis of acute oliguria
Loop Diuretics-Drugs-
Furosemide, Ethanoic Acid, Bumetanide, Torsemide
Loop Diuretics -MOA

Furosemide, Ethanoic Acid, Bumetanide, Torsemide
Inhibit resorption of sodium and chloride in the medullary portions of ascending limbs of loops of Henle
Produces prostaglandins causing renal vasodilation and increase in renal blood flow
Associated with allergic interstitial nephritis
May increase Cephalosporin nephrotoxicity
Hypokalemia [5]
Cardiac dysrythmias
Skeletal muscle weakness
GI ileus
Potentiation of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers
Osmotic Diuretics-Uses

Mannitol, Urea
Treatment of ICP
Prophylaxis against acute renal failure
Differential diagnosis of acute oliguria
Decrease intraocular pressure
Osmotic Diuretics-Mechanism of action

Mannitol, Urea
Act at proximal renal tubules and loops of Henle
Increases osmolarity of renal tubular fluid and prevents reabsorption of water
IV only- not absorbed GI
Urea crosses BBB causing rebound increase of ICP
Osmotic Diuretics-Drugs-
Mannitol, Urea
Potassium-sparing Diuretics-Uses

Triamterene, Amiloride
Usually used in combination with loop diuretics or thiazide diuretics to augment diuresis
Decreases loss of potassium
Not real effective
Potassium-sparing Diuretics-MOA

Drugs- Triamterene, Amiloride
Act directly on renal tubular transport mechanisms in distal convoluted tubule
Inhibits potassium excretion into distal tubules
Potassium-sparing Diuretics

Triamterene, Amiloride
Aldosterone Antagonists-Uses

Treatment of refractory edematous states due to CHF and cirrhosis of the liver (increased levels of aldost.)
Aldosterone Antagonists-MOA

Binds to cytoplasmic mineralocorticoid receptors on collecting ducts and blocks aldosterone
Inhibits reabsorption of sodium and chloride
Potassium sparing
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors-Uses

Treat altitude sickness
Decreases intraocular pressure in treatment of glaucoma
Inhibits seizure activity
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors-MOA-

Produce noncompetitive inhibition of carbonic anhydrase enzyme in proximal renal tubules
Excretion of H+ ions decreases, loss of Bicarbonate is increased-causes metabolic acidosis
Decreases aqeous humor formation
Exacerbation of COPD related respiratory acidosis
Dopamine-receptor Agonists-uses/MOA

Drugs- Dopamine, Fendoldopam
Augment renal function and exert diuretic effect
Act on dopamine-1 and dopamine-2 receptors in kidneys
Dopamine-1 receptors control vasodilation, increase renal blood flow, increase glomerular filtration rate
work on distuble tubules
K sparing direteics

Triamterene, Amiloride
Dopamine-receptor Agonists-

Drugs- Dopamine, Fendoldopam
work on distal tubule, proximal portion?

Chlorothiazide, Hydrochlorothiazide
work on ascending loop?
loop diuretics

Furosemide, Ethanoic Acid, Bumetanide, Torsemide
work on proximal tubule and descending loop?
osmotic diuretics

mannitol, urea
work on proximal tubules
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors