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23 Cards in this Set

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בגדול - מה נותנים
carbonic unhydrase inhibitors - acetazolamide
loop diuretics - furosemide
tiazide diuretics - hydroclorotiazide
potassium sparing drugs - spironolate, eplerenone
osmotic diuretics - mannitol
Acetazolamide
Effects
Bicarbonate diuresis - metabolic acidosis + K+ wasting
** self limited after 2-3 days.
reduction in intraocular pressure - (glucoma)
CNS acidosis - hyperventilation (high altitude sickness)
Acetazolamide
Toxicity
hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
rena stones
נימול
Loop diuretics
(אילו תרופות יש בקטגוריה זו?)
Furosemide
Ethacrynic acid
Loop diuretics
What is the mechanism of action?
They inhibits the cotransporter of Na/K/Cl
Loop diuretics
Effect
Edema fluid is rapidly excreted and blood pressure may be significantly reduced.
Ca excretion is increased (פחות קלציום יספג בלופ)
Increased K wasting - hypokalemia and alkalosis
Pulmonary vasodilation
Loop diuretics
Clinical use
Edematous states
acut pulmonary edema
hypertension
sever hypercalcemia
Loop diuretics
Toxicity
Hypokalemia - metabolic alkalosis
ototoxicity (פגיעה באוזן)
Tiazide
דוגמא לשם של תרופה בקטגוריה זו
Hydrochlorotiazide
Tiazide
Mechanism of action
Blocks the Na Cl active transporter, result in hypokalemia metabolic alkalosis
reduce blood pressure
Chronic renal stones formation can be controled.
Tiazide
Toxicity
Hypokalemia, hyponatremia
בחולי סכרת - hyperglycemia
K sparring drugs
דוגמאות לתרופות
Spironolactone
Eperenone
K sparring drugs
Mechanisn of action
Steroids derivatives - antagonists to aldosterone
reduce the expretion of genes controlling the synthesis of Na channels and Na/K pump.
K sparring drugs
Effect and clinical use
Increase Na clearance
Decrease K + H clearance
clinical use:
Aldosterism
Heart failure
K sparring drugs
Toxicity
Hyperkalemia + acidosis
endocrine abnormalities
(כמו גבר עם שדיים...)
Osmotic diuretics
שם התרופה
Mannitol
Osmotic diuretics
Mechanism of action
עובר בקלות דרך הגלומרולוס אך לא נספג חזרה מהשתן, כלומר נשאר בלומן וסופח מים אל הלומן
Osmotic diuretics
Effect
The volume of the urine increases
Na excretion increases
Reduce brain volune and intracranial pressure
Reduces intraocular pressure
Osmotic diuretics
Toxicity
Hypokalemia
Pulmonary edema
Headache, nausea and vomiting
ADH agonidts
שמות התרופות
Desmopressin
play a role somewhere after the elevation of cAMP.
ADH agonists
clinical use and toxicity
used in pituitary diabetes insipidus
Toxicity - hypertension
ADH antagonidts
שמות התרופות
Lithium
Demeclocycline
ADH antagonists
clinical use and toxicity
SIADH
Demeclocycline - גורם להפרעות בגדילה של עצמות ושיניי ילדים מתחת לגיל 8
Lithium - can cause diabetes insipidos