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94 Cards in this Set

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A reduction in the number of erythrocytes per cubic millimeter in the blood.
anemia
anemia that is coexistent with another disease;
anemia of chronic disease
Any form of anemia caused by bone marrow failure or aplasia of the marrow
aplastic anemia
Type of anemia in which anemia wherein mature erythrocytes have
a shortened survival and bone marrow responsiveness is decreased.
hemolytic anemia
Iron-deficiency anemia
hypochromic anemia
An anemia in which iron stores are very low or absent.
iron-deficiency anemia
anemia caused by a lack of folic acid or vitamin B12 and in certain diseases.
macrocytic anemia
anemia in which the erythrocytes in blood become larger than normal.
macrocytic anemia
anemia caused by megaloblasts in the bone marrow.
megaloblastic anemia
anemia characterized by smaller than normal red blood cells.
microcytic anemia
anemia in which the hemoglobin in the red blood cells is normal, but this type of anemia still occurs.
normochromic anemia
An anemia in which red blood cells are the normal size, but there are less of them total.
normocytic anemia
anemia caused by a lack of vitamin B12, it is generally
associated with gastric atrophy issues.
pernicious anemia
anemia which is a hereditary

condition in which two abnormally inherited genes cause red blood cells to
change shape.
sickle cell anemia
sickle cell anemia =
sickle cell disease
An anemia in which there exists an adequate amount of iron but there is an inability to incorporate it to hemoglobin.
sideroblastic anemia
heaves, rubs, or gallops are also know as heart sound......
abnormalities
A sac formed by the dilatation of the wall of an artery, vein, or the heart. It is filled with fluid or clotted blood and often results in a pulsating tumor.
aneurysm
most common anuerysm
aneurysm of abdominal aorta
Any variation from the normal rhythm of the heart.
arrhythmia
Arteriosclerosis is a generic term for a number of diseases in which the arterial wall becomes thickened and loses elasticity.
arteriosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which a yellowish plaque comprised of cholesterol and other lipid material is formed within the arteries
atherosclerosis
Inflammation of an artery.
arteritis
Pathologic condition of the blood usually referring to disorders of the cellular elements of the blood.
blood dyscrasias
Any disturbance of the heart rhythm in which the heart rate slows—in adults generally below 60 beats per minute.
bradyarrhythmia
Slowness of the heartbeat.
bradycardia
this term essentially means exactly same thing as bradyarrhythmia and both could be encountered in transcription
bradycardia
A generalized term for primary noninflammatory disease of the heart muscle (myocardium),
cardiomyopathy
A clinical syndrome that reflects a fundamental abnormality in the effective performance of the heart.
congestive heart failure
CHF =
congestive heart failure
Right ventricular enlargement secondary to malformation of the lungs
cor pulmonale
Any disease of the coronary arteries, but most often due to atherosclerosis in the large and medium-sized arteries of the heart.
coronary artery disease
myocardial infarction =
heart attack
the formation or presence of a thrombus, which is an aggregation of blood factors (such as platelets and fibrin) causing vascular obstruction
thrombosis
one of most common venous disorders
deep venous thrombosis
The positioning of the heart on the right side of the thorax rather than on the left.
dextrocardia
The sudden blocking of an artery by a clot or foreign material which has been brought to the site of embolism by the blood flow.
embolism
Inflammation of the endocardium, usually specifically involving one or more heart valves
endocarditis
an infective endocarditis that may be triggered or intensified by bacteria during dental procedures.
subacute bacterial endocarditis
SBE =
subacute bacterial endocarditis
Patients with a history of heart disease or rheumatic fever may be given antibiotics prior to dental treatment
SBE prophylaxis
A twitching of the cardiac muscle that is not in a sustained rhythm, is faster than normal, and is not effective.
fibrillation
a chronic fibrillation condition that can be present for years
atrial fibrillation
this fibrillation condition is quickly fatal
ventricular fibrillation
An abnormal passage or communication between two internal organs.
fistula
AVF is a communication between an artery and a vein during which blood flows into the neighboring vessel. It is also a surgically created connection which provides a site for the tube used in hemodialysis.
arteriovenous fistula
AVF =
arteriovenous fistula
A congenital disease passed from the mother in which the blood does not clot properly, and there is both abnormal internal blood flow and bleeding from the mouth.
hemophilia
Bleeding; blood escaping dangerously from the vessels. It can occur both internally, where it is not immediately detected, or externally, where it can be seen escaping the body.
hemorrhage
The lack of blood in a body part. This can be due either to the blood vessels constricting or an obstruction occurring within a vessel.
ischemia
A progressive cancerous disease of the blood-forming tissues that distorts the development of leukocytes in the blood and bone marrow.
leukemia
profuse bleeding =
hemorrhage
A temporary increase in leukocytes in the blood resulting from fever, hemorrhage, infection, or inflammation.
leukocytosis
A chronic edema of the extremities that can be present on either one or both sides of the body. It is secondary to the obstruction of the lymph vessels or other disorders of the lymph nodes.
lymphedema
Obstruction of blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle because of narrowing of the mitral opening.
mitral stenosis
A bulging of one or both of the mitral valve leaflets into the left atrium during systole so that a sharp systolic sound or click and late regurgitation murmur are heard.
mitral valve prolapse
The presence of a large number of monocytes in the blood. The most common type infects adolescents and results in two to three weeks of fever and fatigue.
mononucleosis
3 main types of murmurs
systolic, diastolic, continuous
A sound heard on auscultation of the heart or blood vessels which can be either benign or pathologic.
murmur
2 types of systolic murmurs
ejection murmurs and holosystolic murmurs
murmurs due to turbulent flow through narrowed or otherwise irregular valves or outflow tracts
ejection murmurs
murmurs due to regurgitation or shunts into chambers which have a lower resistance
holosystolic
murmurs due to stenosis of the mitral or tricuspid valves or regurgitation of the aortic or pulmonary valves.
diastolic murmurs
mitral stenosis produces what kidn of a murmur
diastolic murmur
A backward flow of blood (a leak) into the left ventricle caused by an improper closure of the aorti valve.
aortic regurgitation
backward flow of blood =
leak
Ischemic myocardial necrosis due to the abrupt reduction of coronary blood flow to the myocardium, especially the left ventricle.
myocardial infarction (MI)
heart attack =
myocardial infarction
MI =
myocardial infarction
Inflammation of the muscular walls of the heart.
myocarditis
Failure of the communication between the pulmonary artery and the aorta to close in a fetus. This is the most common congenital cardiac anomaly, and it is usually secondary to maternal rubella infection.
patent ductus arteriosus
PDA =
patent ductus arteriosus
most common congenital cardiac anomaly
patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
secondary to maternal rubella infection
patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
An opening in the septum separating the atria (by itself called an atrial septal defect) which is caused by failure of the fetal opening to ever close.
patent foramen ovale (PFO)
PFO =
patent foramen ovale
Inflammation of the pericardium due to a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection. It can be a complication of MI or surgery, or related to another pathology. There are several different types.
pericarditis
A pinpoint, perfectly round, purplish-red spot caused by intradermal or submucous hemorrhage
petechia
A vascular disease characterized by intermittent bilateral attacks to the fingers and toes, as well as occasionally the ears and nose, marked by extreme pallor or cyanosis of the skin.
Raynaud disease
vascular disease of fingers and toes
Raynaud disease
All layers of the heart are affected by inflammation following rheumatic fever.
rheumatic heart disease
A state in which blood flow to and perfusion of peripheral tissues is inadequate to sustain life because of insufficient cardiac output or maldistribution of the blood flow
shock
3 types of shock
hypovolemic, cardiogenic, vasodilatory
Shock with insufficient vascular volume.
hypovolemic shock
Shock with inadequate cardiac function.
cardiogenic shock
Shock with inadequate vasomotor tone.
vasodilatory shock
he most commonly seen type of shock, it is caused by an immediate hypersensitivity to a substance (such as a bee sting or drug).
anaphylactic shock
Shock associated with an overwhelming infection.
septic shock
Any disturbance of the heart rhythm in which the heart rate is abnormally high, usually greater than 100 beats per minute in an adult.
tachyarrhythmia
Excessive rapid action of the heart. (Essentially the same thing as tachyarrhythmia, but this is the more commonly used term.)
tachycardia
An anatomic abnormality manifested by severe or total right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and a defect that allows unoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to bypass the pulmonary artery and flow directly into the aorta. This occurs in infants and requires repair.
tetralogy of Fallot
Inflammation of a vein associated with thrombus formation.
thrombophlebitis
A term applied to a variety of abnormalities of sinus node function.
sick sinus syndrome
Unnaturally and permanently distended veins.
varicose veins