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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does Sampson mean by "Ladder of Confidence"?
He means testing ideas to become hypothoses, then theories, then laws
How are historical sciences different from chemistry
Cannot test theories directly since impossible to reproduce past events
How are chemistry and historical sciences the same?
You can observe multiple examples of such events.
Has have views of dinosaurs and their behavior changed in the past 20 years or so?
Dinosaurs are now thought of as a lot more active as opposed to slow and sluggish. Also the bird-dinosaur link was now accepted. Also: warm vs. cold blood
Give example of a scientific "fact" and theory.
fact: law of superposition
theory: of relativity
how is a theory diff from a hypothesis?
theories cover a more broad range of phenomena and based on extensive testing
William Buckland
Discovered a jawbone, named it megalosaurus
Sir Richard Owen
Studied remains and named dinosaurs "dinosauria"
Waterhouse Hawkins
Sculptor that worked on life-size dino models in the Cyrstal Palace
Gideon Mantell
found a fossil tooth but couldnt identify it, that it looked like a giant iguana
Named by Mantell after a giant fossil that looked to him like a iguana tooth
What Sir Richard Owen named dinosaurs
Richard Cope
Involved in the "Bone Wars" with Marsh, to see who could get the most dino bones
Edward Hitchcock
Collected footprints
Othniel Charles Marsh
Involved in "Bone Wars" with Richard Cope
Morrison Formation
Large number of bones found in Utah. Allosaurus skeletons discovered there.
Crystal Palace
Where Waterhouse Hawkins constructed stuff
Buckland discoverd a jawbone and named it megalosaurus, first dino named.
dinosaur footprint
Discovered by Mantell in 1832
What do Chinese dragons have to do with dinosaurs?
Chinese thought they were the bones of dragons and used them in medicine
From which western state did most of the dinos studied by Copel and Marsh come from?
What 3 dinosaur genera were included in the original concept of "dinosauria"?
Hyleosaurus, Megalosaurus, and Iguanadon
Duck-billed. First full dinosaur skeleton to be discovered in North America
What geologic Period did the first dinosaurs evolve?
Mesozoic Era during the late Triassic Period
What advantages do CT scans have over older methods of studying dino skeletons?
CT can let scientists look at individual slices, turn them into 3 dimensional objects, and look at specific structures
trace fossils
fossils in which there is no bones, but traces (like footprints)
body fossils
the bones
depositional enviroment
where things are depositied, like a tar pit?
Study of decaying organisms over time as well as the diagenesis of an organism
stratum (plural strata)
a layer of rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguishes it from contiguous layers
The study of sedimentary rocks
of the earth
refers in geology to the flowing of water
relative vs. "absolute" time
absolute: when time is the same for all observers
relative: when time is different from each observer
geological time units
eons, eras, period
long period of time that is composed of many eras
composed of many periods. There are four in the existence of Earth
sub-eras, the smallest period of geological time
igneous rock that has crystallized from molten magma
1. a stuctural unit of vetebrate anatomy
2. a composite material
3. a living tissue: store for various nutrients
Steno's Principle
the angles between corresponding faces on crystals of the same substance are the same for all examples of the mineral or material
layers are arranged in a time sequence, with the oldest on the bottom and the youngest on the top,
original horizontality
layers of sediment are originally deposited horizontally
original continuity (lateral continuity)
that layers of sediment initially extend laterally in all directions
Smith's Principle of Faunal Succession
different strata contain particular types of fossilised flora and fauna, and that these fossil forms succeed each other in a specific and predictable order that can be identified over wide distances
"Bloat and float"
when whales die, they fill with gas and float on the water
articulated skeletons indicate rapid burial/disarticulated skeletons loss info
Name some bone modification processes
abrasion, bioerosion, dissolution, rounding, fragmentation, orientation, size
What are some factors to consider when digging for dinosaurs?
Dino bone is found, though unusual. Geological maps are used to serach for the best outcropping of rocks which may contain dinos. Also what kind are you looking for?
Tertiary period
the time between the demise of the dinosaurs and the most recent ice age
period before dinosaurs between 299 ma and 250 ma
How many years ago did the Mesozoic Era begin?
251 mya
When did the Cretaceous end?
65 mya
establishing the equivalence age of two rock bodies in separate areas
How accurate are dates?
+/- 50 years
Name two isotopes and their repsective daughter products

Why would a very long half-life isotope not be useful for numerical age-dating of young rocks?
cause the older it is the less accurate it gets
Alfred Russel Wallace
proposed theory of natural selection along with darwin
evolutionary tree among organisms
similarity in structures due to their shared ancestry
Hox genes
genes used in the development of animals, plants, and fungi
Gregor Mendel
the father of modern genetics. Experimented with pea plants
"missing link"
the transitional fossil between apes and humans
punctuated equilibrium
theory saying most species never change, only spariodically and at once
changes occur slowly in gradual steps
life was created by God
intelligent design
God created animals, not natural selection
developed the theory of heredity
founder effect
when a small group of individuals start a new population
father of modern taxonomy, which is nomenclature, such as homo sapien
vestigial structures
organs and such that are believed to have lost much of their orginal functions
analogous and examples
stuctures that serve similar functions but are not evolutionarily related, such as legs of verterbrates and legs of insects
study of classifying animals
taxon (plural taxa)
group of organisms such as domain or kingdom
tree-like diagram which shows the philosophy of arranging organisms based on their evolutionary track and not on morphological similarities
a single organism and everything that descended from it
a branching from the parent before the other groups branched themselves
point on a plant stem where a leaf is attached, only with cladograms
group of diapsida which includes crocs and birds
subclass in which verterbrates have two holes in the side of their head. includes lizards, birds, snakes, crocs
verterbrates with 4 appendages
mammal-like reptiles
embroynic development that includes birds, mammals, etc