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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The two cell types of the nervous system are
Neurons and neurolglia
The space between communicating neurons is a
Synapse
The nervous system:
Detects changes in the internal and external environment.
Controls the movement of muscles.
Regulates secretions.
Neurons that convey impulses from the CNS to muscles and glands are :
effectors
Sensory receptors:
Monitor light.
Detect changes inside and outside the body.
Are part of the PNS.
Myelin:
Comprise much of the cell membrane of Schwann Cells
Which of the following is a type of neuroglia:
Astrocyte.
Oligondendrite.
Ependymal cell
Which of the following is NOT part of the CNS:
Satellite Cells
Presynaptic neurons release neurotransmitters by:
Exocytosis
If a resting potential becomes more negative, then the membrane is:
hyperpolarized
The ion gates are closed and cannot be opened:
absolute refractory period
The neurotransmitter that controls skeletal muscle contractions is:
acetylcholine
Resting potential:
Threshold potential:
-70mV
-55mV
What happens when a resting cell is stimulated to a membrane potential of -60mV?
Nothing
A greater stimulus results in:
Greater nerve impulse
The CNS consists of :
The brain and spinal cord
The meningies consists of :
pia mater, dura mater, and arachnoid mater.
Amount CSF typically present at any one time in the body:
140 ml
Most cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is secreted by the:
Choroid plexuses
Amount of CSF typically produced by the body each day:
500ml
CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) :
A. Informs the autonomic centers of the brainstem and hypothalamus of the internal environment.
B. Protects the brain
C. Protects the spinal cord
The lumbar enlargement:
Gives of nerves to the lower limbs
Coordinates voluntary muscle movement:
Cerebellum
Which is a major portion of the diencephalon:
Thalamus
If the area of the cerebral cortex known as Broca's region is damaged:
Motor control of speech muscles is lost.
A thin layer of gray matter forming the outermost part of the cerebrum:
Dura Mater
The consequence of sensory nerve fibers crossing over is that the:
impulses never reach the appropriate lobe of the brain to be interpreted.
The area of the skin supplied by sensory nerve fibers from a particular dorsal root is called a:
DERMATOME
Aging of the brain begins:
at birth
Over a lifetime the brain shrinks by about:
10%
Special senses are usually found:
In the head
The input from sensory receptors are received by the brain as :
A Sensation
The ability to quickly lose the ability to smell a strong smell is:
Sensory Adaptation.
Sensory impulses are stimulated at receptors by:
Changes in synaptic potentials
Olfactory receptors
Chemoreceptors
Acetylcholine and norepinephrine
Neurotransmitters
Taste receptors:
chemoreceptors
Another name for pain receptors:
nociceptors
A neuron will not respond until the ________ is reached?
Threshold potential
Which is not a primary taste sensation?
sweet, sour, bitter, pungent
pungent
The retina is part of:
the inner tunic
Rhodospsin:
Rods
Monitors head bob:
Otoliths
Short postganglionic fibers:
Sympathetic
Geophagy (eating dirt) is probably stimulated by:
a. olfactory senses
b. ocular senses
c. taste buds
d. none of the above*****
Only sensation from the viscera:
Pain (interoceptor)
Truck:

Craniosacral:
sympathetic trunk

parasympathetic
Parasympathetic system:
autonomic & efferent
Sympathetic system:
autonomic &efferent
Events leading up to Nerve impulse conduction:
Nerve cell membrane maintains resting potential by diffusion of Na+ and K*, down concentration gradients as the cell pumps them up the gradient, Neurons receive stimulation, Sodium Channels the trigger zone of the axon open, sodium ions diffus inward, depolarization, potassium channels of membrane open, potassium ions diffuse outward repolarize membrane, action potential cause an electric current, action potential occurs along the axon as a nerve impluse
Short version of Nerve impulse conduction:
Maintain resting potential.
Diffusion of NA and K.
Concentration gradients
Neurons stimulation
Sodium channels trigger zone (axon open)
Sodium ions diffuse(in),
Depolarize membrane
Potassium diffuse(out) Repolarize.
Action potential-an electric current.
Action potential a nerve impulse
color depends on set of cones stimulated:
erthrolabe-red
chlorolabe-green
cyanolabe-blue
pain receptors location and simulation:
locted in viscera, stimulation produces sensation
limbic system:

cerebral cortex:
emotions, feelings, sensory impulses

75% of all neurons