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59 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the origin of the term digit
it came from the use of the fingers because we have ten digits
List the mathematical functions that can be performed on the ancient abacus
add
subtract
divide
multiply
square roots
cubic roots
the first adding machine was invented by _ in the seventeenth century
Blaise Pascal
Joseph Jacquard invented a loom that used _ techniques and _ cards to weave patterns in the cloth
Digital / Punched
Many of the principles used in the modern computer can be traced to _ who developed the idea of mechanical digital computer in the 1830s
Charles Babbage
Briefly describe the difference between a calculator and a computer
computer has programs and data so it doesn't require human intervention

Calculator requires human intervention in order to work
What was George Boole's major contribution to the modern computer
1815 - 1864
the book Law of Thought was the first systematic treatment of the use of logic
Who designed and built the first analog computer
Vannevar Bush
Who developed the first digital computer to use both electrical and mechanical devices? when?
Howard Aiken / 1944
who invented the slide rule known as bones or rods
John Napier
one of the first commercially available computers was the _ which was introduced in 1951
UNIVAC I
the _ was developed at bell laboratories in 1947 and was used as a replacement for the vacuum tube in the computer
Transistors
define bit and byte
bit 1 or 0
byte 8 bits
early disk operating system DOS by Microsoft limited the main memory of a computer to
640 kilobytes
what is meant by random access memory RAM
all storage locations in the memory are equally accessible, sequential access is not required
hard and floppy disks are referred to as _ memory
auxiliary
the system that allows data to be entered and allows the computer to communicate with the outside world BIOS is contained in _ memory
read only
what is the purpose of cache memory
to compensate for mismatch in operating speeds between the processor and main memory access time
what is meant by virtual memory
a method of using auxiliary to increase the main memory
when the processor and the control units of a computer are combined into a single unit, the unit is known as the
CPU
switches X and Y are connected in series with each other to provide a function F. write three forms of Boolean Algebra equations that will express this relationship
X * Y = F multiply
switches X and Y are connected in parallel with each other to provide a function F. write three forms of Boolean Algebra equations that will express this relationship
X + Y = F add
give two ways that the complement of switch X can be indicated
X with a line on top and X'
give the equivalent term for (F')'
= F
state in words what the boolean equation (WX = A) means
output A depends on W and X being high
how are operations grouped in Boolean Algebra
PEMDAS
write the Boolean Equation that will support the statement, the motor M will start if you reset the overload R and push the start button S
R * S = M
Either of the two switches A,B can be used to turn on a fan F. write the boolean equation that expresses this relationship
A + B = F
the AND gate is a logic circuit that has _ or more inputs and a _ output
2 / single
an AND gate has a LOW output. this means that at least _ input are _
1 / Low
draw the new and old symbols for an AND gate with three inputs A - C and an output F
--
_D-- output

--
_[ ] -- &
write the Boolean Algebra equation that expresses the circuit
ABC = F
the output F is HIGH in the truth table above for _ of the eight possible sets
one
draw the NEMA logic symbol for a 4 - input AND gate
--
--
--
-- [ ] &
An IC integrated circuit chip with four AND gates is called a _ AND gate
Quad
the OR gate is a logic circuit that has _ or more inputs and a _ output
two / single
An OR gate has a LOW output. this means that at least _ inputs are _
all / low
what solid state device was introduced in the early 1960s that led directly to the development of the first microprocessor
IC integrated circuit
the acronym TTL stands for
Transistor Transistor Logic
the introduction of the TTL revolutionized the computer industry due to the _ of the chip
Low cost
with the introduction of the TTL design using mathematical design techniques was replaced by the concept of
redundancy
very large scale integration VLSI techniques make it possible for several _ transistors to be packaged in a single chip
million
the personal computer PC was introduced in the early
1980
the two categories of the study of electronics are _ and _
Digital + Analog
a graph showing continuous values over time is an _ representation
Analog
a graph showing the values at discrete time intervals is a _ representation
Digital
Explain how AND logic can be changed to NAND logic
by inverting weither input to the AND gate or by inverting the output
When AND logic is followed by an _, the output is NAND logic.
inverter
with AND logic, the output will be _ if _ of the inputs are HIGH
HIGH / All
in a NOR logic gate, what is the purpose of the common - emitter amplifier following the OR logic
to buffer the gate from other gates and the load
how did the term NOR come about
is the contraction of not/or
write four possible Boolean equations that express the input to output logic
A + B = X'
A' + B = X'
A + B' = X'
A' + B' = X
the amplifier used for buffering in a NOR gate is called an
Inverter
What does the bubble on the NOR symbol indicate
provided at the output
the output of the XOR gate is High when _ input is High
ONE
if only one of the inputs is Low, the output will be _
High
how is an XOR gate identified from an AND gate when the new symbol is used
AND gate has an & symbol
XOR gate has an = 1 symbol
the maximum number of inputs to an XNOR gate is _
2
How is the symbol for XNOR gate different from the XOR gate
bubble is used