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175 Cards in this Set

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principal function is to prepare food for cellular use and remove indigestible remains
digestive system
taking food into digestive system by way of mouth
ingestion
chewing to pulverize food and mix it with saliva
mastication
swallowing of food to move it from mouth to stomach
deglutition/propulsion
mechanical and chemical breakdown of food
digestion/chemical digestion
mixes food with digestive juices, increases efficiency of absorption
segmentation/mechanical digestion
passage of molecules of food through mucous membrane of small intestine (into circulatory and lymphatic systems for distribution)
absorption
rhythmic, wavelike intestinal contraction that move food through digestive tract
peristalsis
dicharge of indigestible wastes
defecation
accessory digestive glands, produce saliva, continually secreted, cleans teeth, disolves food, has 3 pairs of glands
Salivary glands
two sections of digestive system
alimentary canal and accessory organs
GI tract(gastrointestinal), 9m long, extends through mouth to anus, organs include-mouth,pharynx,esophagus,stomach,small and large intestine
alimentary canal
these organs include-teeth,tongue,salivary gland,liver,gallbladder,pancreas
accessory organs
3 glands produced by the salivary glands
1. parotid gland
2. submandibular gland
3. sublingual gland
refers to developing stomach and intestines in embryo
gut
any of the organs (lungs,stomach,spleen)
viscera
largest, is below and in front of ear, swelling of this caused by mumps virus
parotid gland
two different controls of digestion
mechanical/chemical or extrinsic/intrinsic
what 3 things do the sensors in the walls of the GI tract detect
stretch,osmolarity,substrates
inferior to mandible about midway on inside of jaw
submandibular gland
what are the responses of the GI tract
to activat or inhibit glands that secrete digestive juices and to stimulate smooth muscle to mix and move contents
on floor of mouth under tongue
sublingual gland
4 layers/tunics of alimentary canal from innermost to outermost
1. mucosa
2.submucosa
3. muscularis externa
4. serosa
secrete mucus throughout GI tract
goblet cells
the kind of teeth we have as humans
heterodont dentition
thin, binding layer of connective tissue
lamina propria
provides autonomic nerve supply to muscularis mucosae
submucosal plexus
replaces serosa (outerlayer of GI tract) it is a fibrous connective tissue that binds esophagus to surrounding structures
adventitia
teeth are all the same size and shape
homodont
referred to as oral or buccal cavity, receptable for food
mouth
sockets containing teeth, teeth differ in structure and fxn
alveoli
antimicrobial compunds produced in response to injury
defensis
mass of food that is swallowed
bolus
4 pairs, chisel-shaped for cutting and shearing, have single root
incisors
swallowing
deglutition
depression between cheeks and lips externally area of gums and teeth internally
vestibule
opening of oral cavity
oral orifice
one, two, three roots used for crushing and grinding
premolars(bicuspids) and molars
opening between oral cavity and pharynx
fauces
roof of the oral cavity covered by the mucous membrane
palate
assis in manipulating food in oral cavity, aid in speech
cheeks and lips
connects lips to gum, inside of mouth
labial frenulum
underlain by bone, food is pushed against hard palate during chewing
hard palate
transition zone between outer skin and mucous membrane of oral cavity
vermilion/red margin
area within teeth and gums
oral cavity proper
transverse ridges along hard palate area, serve as friction ridges for tongue during swallowing
palate rugae
fills most of mouth when it is closed, mostly skeletal muscle
tongue
in toungue, not attached to bone
intrinsic muscles
fold of mostly skeletal muscle
soft palate
extend to tongue from bones
extrensic muscles
located on dorsal surface of base of tongue
lingual tonsils
cone-shaped, free edge that projects downward, reflexively closes nasopharynx when we swallow, prevents food and fulid from entering nasal cavity
uvula
secure tongue to floor of mouth
lingual frenulum
fused tongue, restricted movement
ankyloglossia
small elevation on dorsal surface of tongue, rough surface, aid in handling food, contain taste buds
papillae
2 pairs, cone-shaped for holding and tearing, have a single root
canines(cuspids)
3 types of papillae on tongue
filiform, fungiform, vallate
we have two sets of teeth in lifetime together this is called what
diphyodont
sensitive to touch, most numerous papillae on tongue, aids in licking, contain keratin- white appearance on tongue
filiform papillae
large, rounded, reddish, house taste buds
fungifom papillae
arranged in V shape on posterior surface, house taste buds
vallate
we have 20 of these teeth which erupt 6mo-2.5 yrs
deciduous/milk teeth
division line after vallate
sulcus terminalis
roof of the oral cavity covered by the mucous membrane
palate
we have 32 of these teeth which begin from age 6-17
permanent teeth
underlain by bone, food is pushed against hard palate during chewing
hard palate
transverse ridges along hard palate area, serve as friction ridges for tongue during swallowing
palate rugae
last teeth to erupt, may cause serious crowding or impaction since jaw is fully formed by their appearance, age 17-25
wisdom teeth
fold of mostly skeletal muscle
soft palate
cone-shaped, free edge that projects downward, reflexively closes nasopharynx when we swallow, prevents food and fulid from entering nasal cavity
uvula
types, number and position of teeth
dental formula
number,type and position of teeth
dental formula
deciduous formula
I(incisor) 2/2,C(canine)1/1
DM (deciduous molar) 2/2= 10x2=20 (for both sides)
permanent formula
I2/2,C1/1,P2/2,M3/3=16x2=32
receives bolus from oral cavity, automatically continues deglutition of bolus to esophagus, common passageway for digestive and respiratory systems, constantly moistened by saliva
pharynx
connects pharynx to stomach, a collapsible muscular tube, a/b 25cm long, originates at larynx and located posterior to trachea, located w/in mediastium of thorax
esophagus
opening through diaphragm for esophagus(above stomach)
esphageal hiatus
joins the stomach at cardiac orifice surrounded by gastroesophageal sphincter
esphageal hiatus
restricts backflow of food
esphageal sphincter
esophagus transports bolus to stomach by this
peristalsis
if pulp on tooth becomes infected, it must be removed this way
root canal therapy
regurgitation of small amounts of gastric contents into esophagus
heartburn
structural abnormality in which superior part of stomach protrudes above diaphragm
hiatal hernia
certain mammals and rodents can't regurgitate (poisons kill mice effectively)
gastroesphageal sphincter
receives bolus from esophagus, churns bolus with gastric juice, intitiates digestion of proteins, most distensible portion of GI tract
stomach
pasty food material that is moved into small intestine
chyme
upper, narrow region of stomach
cardia
dome shaped portion of stomach that contacts diaphragm
fundus
large central portion of stomach
body
funnel shaped terminal portion of stomach
pylorus
jxn with small intestine (prevents backflow)
pyloric sphincter
broadly rounded surfaces
anterior&posterior surfaces
medial concave border
lesser curvature
extends between lesser curvature and liver
lesser omentum
drugs that stimulate vomiting reflex
emetics
lateral convex border
greater curvature
number,type and position of teeth
dental formula
attached to greater curvature
greater omentum
between pyloric sphincter and ileocecal valve, opening into large intestine,receives chyme from stomach and secretion from liver and pancreas
small intestine
muscularis layer has 3 layers of smooth muscles, names based upon direction of fiber arrangement
1. oblique(inner)
2. circular(middle)
3. longitudinal(outer)
supports and attaches small intestine, contains BV, nerves and lymph vessels, 3m long and 2.5 cm wide in living person. 2x size in dead person
mesentary
longitudinal folds of mucosa, gradually smooth out as stomach fills, many gastric glands
gastric rugae
reflex center to empy stomach, activated by GI tract (especially duodenum)
reflex center
3 sections of small intestine
1. duodenum-fixed, C shaped tube 25cm
2. jejunum-2.5 m long
3. ileum- remaing 2m
deep folds in mucosa and submucosa
plicae circulares
specialized lymph vessels
lacteals
innervated smooth muscle and specialized lymph vessels in the small intestine
lacteal
cover villi,give wall of intestine carpetlike appearance, promote absorption
microvilli
local,ringlike contraction,occur 12-16 min in region containing chyme
rhythmic segmentations in small intestine
occur primarily in longitudinal muscle layer, no particular frequecy, constrictive wave that moves along a segment of intestine, stops, then moves in opposite direction
pendular movements in small intestine
responsible for propulsive movement of chyme, wavelike contractions, occur at a/b 15-18 min. takes chyme 3-10 hours to travel length of small intestine, both of the 2 muscle layers are involved in this
peristalsis
largest internal organ of body, skin is larger, weighs 3.5-4 lbs, vascularity gives it reddish/brown color, 2 lobes
liver
saclike organ attached to inferior surface of liver
gallbladder
yellowish, green fluid used in digestive process, expelled into cystic duct
bile
soft, lobulated, glandular organ, secretes pancreatic juice into duodenum
pancreas
secrete glucagon and insulin which control fate of digested carbs in the pancreas
islets of langerhans
connects diaphragm to liver
falciform ligament
emulsify fats
bile salts
bile pigment
bilirubin
receives undigested wastes from small intestine, absorbs water and electrolytes, 5 ft long and 2.5 in diameter, begins at end of ileum to anus, no digestive fxn, forms stores and expels feces through defecation
large intestine
too much cholesterol or too few bile salts
gallstones
dilated pouch below ileocecal valve, valve prevents backfow of chyme
cecum
attached to inferior margin of caecum, 3 in. long, may serve to resist infection, lots of lymphatic tissue
vermiform appendix
travels up the right side of the abdominal cavity to the level of the right kidney
ascending colon
travels across the abdominal cavity
transverse colon
descends down the left side of the posterior abdominal wall
descending colon
inferior, enters pelvis, becomes s shaped
sigmoid colon
terminal 20cm, last portion
rectum
very last (2-3 cm)portion
anal canal
external opening of anal canal
anus
opening beween oral and nasal cavities, immediate problem b/c it interferes with sucking and swallowing
cleft palate
inflammation of lips
chilitis
difficulty swallowing, may be due to obstruction or injury to esophagus
dysphagia
inflammation of intestinal mucosa, discharge of loose stools that contain mucus, pus and blood
dysentery
most common form of dysentery
amebic dysentery
organism that causes food poisoning from uncleanliness of persons preparing food
salmonella
most serious type of food poisoning, contaminated by clostridium botulinum, occurs commonly in nature(canned food must be heated to 120 cel), toxins are poisonous, not the organism, poison is a neurotoxin that is readily absorbed, has effect on nervous system
botulism
tooth decay, gradual decalacification of tooth enamel and dentin, dental unclanliness and sugar cause this, <35 more suceptible
dental caries(cavities)
person>35 more suceptible, cause inflammation or deterioration of gingivae, alveolar sockets,periodontal membrane and cementum, tooth loss in adults, caused by smoking, plaque,bad diet
periodontal disease
dentistry that prevents and corrects misaligned teeth
orthodontics
grindin or clenching teeth, response to stress, crack teeth
bruxism
inflammation of gum
gingivitis
offensive breath odor
halitosis
viral disease of parotid salivar glands, may involve pancrease and testes, serious in adults
mumps
lack of vit. B12, needed to produce mature RBC's, stomach fails to secret intrinsic factor to allow absortion of vit. B12 in small intestine, injection of vitB12 is an effective treatment
pernicious anemia
massive overeating followed by purging, such as self-induced vomiting, taking laxitive, excessive exercise
bulemia
inf. of liver, caused by a virus, may lead to cancer and death
hepatitis
chronic disease of liver in which fibrous tissue replaces functional hepatic cells, causes include hepatitis, alcoholism, toxin, parasites
cirrhosis
malignan cancerous tumors of liver, usually fatal
hepatomas
formation of gallstones, obstruct common bile duct, cause intestine pain, cause jaundice
cholelithiasis
inflammation of pancreas, caused by blockage of pancreaic duct, causes build up of enzyme trypsin (can digest pancreas)
pancreatitis
erosions in mucous membrane of stomach or duodemum, produced by enzyme pepsin
peptic ulcers
erosions produced in stomach
gastric ulcers
in duodenum, cause not clear but affected by alcohol, coffee and asprin, emotional stress may cause this
duodenal ulcers
inflammation of intestinal mucosa referred to as intestinal flu, caused by bacteria, alcohol, stress, symptoms are abdomial pain nausea diarrhea
enteritis
acute inflammation of appendix, appenectomy to treat
appendicitis
small herniation of mucosa through colon walls
diverticulosis
inflammation of colon walls, can be life threatening, cause is lack of bulk/fiber food in diet
diverticulitis
inflammation of colon and rectu
colitis
varicos eins of rectum and anus
hemorrhoids
formation of abdominal exit of GI tract by bringing loop of colon to surfact of abdomen. if rectum is removed because of cancer, colostomy provides a permanent outlet for feces
colostomy
inherited diesase of exocrine glands, pancreatic secretions are too thick to drain, cause ducts to become inflamed and promote concective tissue formation that occlude the drainage passageway
cystic fibrosis
surgical procedure for creating a bypass of a considerable portion of small intestine, reduces absorptive capacity of small intestine and is used to contrl extreme obesity
jujunoileal bypass
discharge of pus a base of teeth and gum line
pyorrhea
contagious bacerial infection that causes inflammation,ulceration and painful swelling of floor of mouth, contracted through direct contact by kissing an infected person, it can be treated w/ penicillin
trench mouth
surgical removal of section of vagus nerve where it enters stomach to eliminate nerve impulses that stiulate gastric acid secretion, helps cure ulcers
vagotomy
when etone bodies accumulate in blood
ketosis
outcome of ketosis
metabolic acidosis
inadeuate insulin production or receptors
diabetes mellitus
heavy sweating, loss of water and nacl
heat cramps
skin cells deprived of oxygen and nutrients begin to die
frostbite
inherited condition,ldl receptors are absent or abnormal, uptake of cholesterol by tissue cells is blocked and the total chol. in blood is elevated
familial hypercholeserolemia
sever protein deficiency in children, resulting in mental retardation and failure to grow
kwashiorkor
protein caloriemalnutrition accompanie by progressive wasting
marasmus
surgery in which fat of hypodermis is suctioned fom places where it is most abudnad
suction lipectomy