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50 Cards in this Set

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What is digestion?
The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into forms that cell membranes can absorb.
What organs carry out the process of digestion, ingestion, propulsion, absorption, and defecation?
Organs of the digestive system.
What does the digestive system consist og?
The alimentary canal and accessory organs.
What are the different accessory organs?
Salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
What structures are in the alimentary canal?
The mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.
Name some general characteristics of the alimentary canal?
The alimentary canal is a muscular tube that is smooth muscle lined with epithelial tissue.
What are the different layers of the wall of the alimentary canal?
Mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer, serosa.
What do parasympathetic impulses do?
Increase activities of the digestive system.
What do sympathetic impulses do?
Inhibit certain digestive actions.
What does the submucosal plexus do?
Controls secretions.
What does the myenteric plexus do?
Controls gastrointestinal motility.
What are the functions of the mouth?
To ingest food, mechanically break up solid particles (with saliva), and prepares food for chemical digestion.
What is another name for chewing?
Mastication.
What forms the lateral walls of the mouth?
The cheeks.
Highly mobile structures that surround the mouth opening.
Lips
Describe the tongue.
A thick, muscular organ that occupies the floor of the mouth and nearly fills the oral cavity when the mouth is closed.
Describe the palate.
Consists of a hard anterior part and a soft posterior part. Forms the roof of the oral cavity.
Describe the teeth.
The hardest structures in the body.

Primary (20) [Deciduous]
Secondary (32) [Permanent]

*Incisors, canine, premolars, molars*
What do salivary glands secrete?
Saliva
What action begins the digestion of carbohydrates?
The secretion of saliva.
What are the three major salivary glands?
Parotid, submandibular, sublingual
What do sublingual glands secrete?
Mucus
What do submandibular glands secrete?
Serous fluid and mucus
What do parotid glands secrete?
Watery serious fluid
What do mucus cells secrete?
Mucous
What do serous cells produce?
Salivary amylase
What are the two types of secretory cells in salivary glands?
Serous and mucous
What is the pharynx?
A cavity posterior to the mouth.
What structures function in swallowing?
The pharynx and the esophagus muscular walls.
What parts is the pharynx divided into?
Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
What forces food into the pharynx?
The tongue
What stages is swallowing divided into?
Voluntary, swallowing, and peristalsis
Describe what happens during the voluntary stage in swallowing.
Saliva is mixed with chewed food.
Describe what happens during swallowing.
The swallowing reflex is triggered.
What does peristalsis do?
Transports food in the esophagus to the stomach.
* List the different steps in swallowing.
The tongue forces food into the pharynx --> tongue is pressed against palate --> epiglottis closes --> inferior constrictor muscles relax --> superior constrictor muscles contract --> peristaltic waves moves food through esophagus to stomach.
Describe the structure of the stomach?
A J-shaped, pouch like organ.
What are the two layers of smooth muscle in the stomach?
An inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer.
What is secreted from the tubular gastric glands in the mucous membrane of the stomach?
Pepsinogen, pepsin, hydrochloric acid, mucus, and intrinsic factor
Why is the stomach not well adapted to absorb digestive products?
Smaller surface area
What does the stomach absorb?
Some water, certain salts, alcohol, and certain lipid-soluble drugs
This structure has a dual function as an endocrine and exocrine gland.
Pancreas.
What is the endocrine gland of the pancreas' function?
Release of insulin and glucagon.
What is the function of the exocrine gland in the pancreas?
Secrete digestive juice (pancreatic juice)
What does pancreatic juice contain?
Enzymes
What is the largest internal organ?
The liver
What are some functions of the liver?
Produce glycogen, forms urea, removes toxins and certain drugs from the blood.
What is bile?
Yellowish-green liquid that hepatic cells secrete.
What does bile contain?
Water, bile salts, cholesterol, and electrolytes
What are some functions of bile salts?
Aid digestive enzymes, reduce surface tension, enhance absorption of fatty acids