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58 Cards in this Set

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Gastrointestinal tract aka alimentary canal
tube that runs from mouth to anus (about 9 meters or 30 feet)
primary organs
mouth, most of pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
accessory organs
teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, and pancreas
layers of the GI tract from innermost to outermost
mucosa
submucosa
muscularis
serosa
mucosa
innermost layer; mucous membrane; comes in contact with food/nutrients/waste material
submucosa
contains the blood and lymphatic vessels and neuronal network
muscularis
muscular layer
serosa
superficial layer; called adventitia in the esophagus; thin membrane that suspends the GI tract in the abdominopelvic cavity; also called peritoneum
oral cavity
the mouth; accepts food; site of mastication (chewing) and onset of chemical digestion (salivary amylase) of starches
esophagus
starts where the laryngopharynx ends; muscular tube that carries food to the stomach
peristalsis
rhythmic muscular contractions that move food along the GI tract
stomach
'j' shaped, hollow, muscular enlargement of the GI tract; site of most mechanical digestion and food storage; chemical digestion of protein begins (pepsin)
regions of the stomach
cardia
fundus
body
pylorus
cardia
surrounds the region that the esophagus enters
lower esophageal (cardiac) sphincter
valve that opens into the stomach
fundus
rounded superior region left of the cardia; storage area
body
inferior to the fundus; large central churning chamber
greater curvature
convex lateral curve of body
lesser curvature
concave medial curve of body
rugae
large folds in the mucosal layer
pylorus
region that conncts the stomach to the small intestine
pyloric sphincter
valve that opens into the small intestine
small intestine
organ where most chemical digestion occurs and primary site of nutrient absorption; duodenum, jejunum, ileum
duodenum
part of the small intestine that begins at the pyloric sphincter
jejunum
middle segment of the small intestine
ileum
last segment of the small intestine; extends to cecum of the large intestine
ileocecal sphincter
valve that separates large and small intestine
villi
hair like projections lining the lumen; allow for greater surface area
plicae circulares
circular folds; permanent ridges that increase surface area
large intestine
organ where water is reabsorbed, vitamin K is produced, and formation and expulsion of waste material
cecum
pouchlike structure where ileum attaches
vermiform appendix
'worm-shaped' hollow tube; serves no function in humans
ascending colon
the colon that goes up
transverse colon
the colon that moves across the abdomen from right to left
descending colon
colon that goes down
rectum
holds waste material
anal canal
last three inches of rectum
anal sphincter
closes the anus except during the elimination waste
salivary glands
secrete saliva containing salivary amylase, which begins chemical digestion of starches
parotid gland
inferior and anterior to ears; secretes saliva into oral cavity
submandibular gland
found beneath the base of the tongue in posterior floor of mouth; open at base of tongue
sublingual gland
superior to submandibular glands; open into floor of mouth
liver
secretes bile, regulates metabolism, detoxifies substances and stores minerals
gall bladder
stores and releases (does NOT make) bile which emulsifies (encapsulates so it can be digested) fats
pancreas
adds enzymes to the small intestine that aid in digestion and modulates blood sugar levels
exocrine (in pancreas)
secretes trypsin that digests protein and pancreatic amylase that digest carbohydrates
endocrine (in pancreas)
secretes hormones (glucagon and insulin) that raise and lower blood sugar
bolus
soft round mass of chewed and swallowed food
deglutition
swallowing
chyme
food mixed with digestive enzymes in stomach and small intestine
viseral peritoneum
serosa; membrane that lines organs in abdominal cavity
falciform ligament
connects to two large lobes of the liver
greater omentum
large fold of serosa that hangs down over intestines
upper esophageal sphincter
allow for passage of bolus from laryngopharynx into the esophagus
lower esophageal sphincter (cardiac)
allows for passage of bolus from esophagus to stomach
pyloric sphincter
allows for passage of chyme from stomach to duodenum
ileocecal sphincter
closes off the ileum of the small intestine from the cecum of the large intestine
anal sphincter
closes the anus