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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
aliments - food
cari - decay
cec - blindness
chym - juice
decidu - falling off
frenul - bridle
gastr - stomach
hepat - liver
hiat - opening
lingu - tongue
peri - around
pyl - gatekeeper
rect - straight
sorpt - to soak up
vill - hairy
The mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods into forms that cell membranes can absorb
Digestion
Muscular tube that passes through the body's thoracic & abdominopelvic cavaties
Alimentary Canal
Functions of the digestive system
Ingestion
Mechanical Digestion
Chemical Digestion
Layers of the Alimentary Wall
Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscular Layer
Serosa
Movements of the Alimentary tube
Mixing
Peristalsis
Segmentation
Mixing in the Alimentary tube
Smooth muscles in small segments of the tube contract rhythmically
Peristalsis in Alimentary tube
Muscle contraction to push food to stomach.
Rhythmic waves of muscular contraction in wall
Segmentation in Alimentary tube
Alternating contraction and relaxation of circular muscle fibers that propel chyme through intestines
Innervation of the Alimentary Canal
Nerve fibers, mainly associate w/muscular layer, maintain muscle tone, regulate strength, rate & velocity of muscle contractions
Submucosal Plexus
Controls gastrointestinal secretions
Myenteric Plexus
Controls gastroin testinal motility
Parasympathetic impulses
Increase activities of digestive system
Sympathetic impulses
Inhibit certain digestive actions
Teeth
Hardest structure in the body
8 incisors
4 cuspids (canine)
8 molars
Incisors (4)
Bite off large pieces of food
Cuspids / Canine (4)
Grasp & tear food
Molars (8)
Grind food particles
Two types of secretory cells of salivary glands
Serous cells
Mucous cells
Major Salivary Glands/Secretions
Parotid Glands - Clear, water, serous fluid, rich in amylase
Submandibular Glands - Primarily serous fluid, some mucous
Sublingual Glands - Primarily mucous, most viscous
Receives food from the esophagus, mixes food w/gastric juices, begins protein digestion, limited absorption, moves food into small intestine
Stomach
Regions of the Stomach
Cardiac - sml area near esophageal opening
Fundic - Temporary storage area
Body - Main part of stomach
Pyloric - Approaches small intestines
Pancreas
Produces pancreatic juice secreted into pancreatic duct.
Pancreatic duct leads to the duodenum
Pancreatic Juice
Pancreatic amylase - carb digesting enzyme.
Pancreatic Lipase - Fat digesting enzyme
Trypsin/Chymotrypsin/Carboxypeptidase - Protein splitting enzymes
Nucleases - Digest nucleic acids
High concentration of bicarbonate ions makes pancreatic juice...
Alkaline
Duodenum
First portion of the small intestine that leads from to the jejunum
Intrinsic Factor
Substance that gastric glands produce to promote absorption of Vitamin B-12
Secretin
Hormone from the small intestine that stimulates the pancreas to release pancreatic juice. (Release during cephalic & gastric phases of gastric secretion)
Yellowish - green liquid that hepatic cells continuously secrete
Bile
Chylomicron
Microscopic droplet of fat in the blood that forms following fat digestion
Failure of the stomach muscle to relax at some junction in the digestive tube, ie between the esophagus and stomach
Achalasia
Inability to swallow
Aphagia
Inflammation of the gallbladder
Cholecystitis
Stones in the gallbladder
Cholelithiasis
Inflammation of small pouches (diverticula) that form in the lining and wall of colon
Diverticulitis
Intestinal infection, caused by viruses, bacteria or protozoans, that cause diarrhea and cramps
Dysentery
Indigestion, difficulty in digesting a meal
Dyspepsia
Difficulty in swallowing
Dysphagia
Inflammation of the intestine
Enteritis
Inflammation of the pharynx
Pharyngitis
Enterogastric Reflex
Regulates the rate at which chyme leaves the stomach
Splits glygocen into disaccharieds
Pancreatic Amylase
Breaks down triglycerides
Pancreate Lipase
Digest proteins
Trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase
Digest nucleic acids
Nucleases
What makes pancreatic juice alkaline?
Bicarbonate ions
Fatty chyme entering duodenum stimulate gallbladder to release
bile
Hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver
Hepatitis A
Not washing hands or eating raw shellfish
Hepatitis B
Chronic; serum
Hepatitis C
Serum
Hepatitis D
Very Severe; only produces symptoms if infected w/ B; serum
Hepatitis E, F, G
More Rare
Hiatus
Opening
Chylomicron
Microscopic droplet of fat in the blood that forms following fat digestion.
Pathway of Chylomicron to the bloodstream
Pathway to bloodstream starts at lacteals and empties into cysterna chyli
Hormone from the small intestine that stimulates the pancreas to release pancreatic juice
Secretin
When is Secretin released?
When acidic chyme enters the duodenum.