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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Digestive Organs
1) Oral cavity
2) Pharynx
3) Esophagus
4) Stomach
5) Small Intestine
6) Large Intestine
Accessory Digestive Organs
1) Teeth
2) tongue
3) Salivary Glands
4) Liver
5) Gallbladder
6) Pancreas
Digestive Functions
1) Ingestion
2) Mechanical Digestion
3) Chemical Digestion
4) Propulsion
5) Secretion
6) Absorption
7) Excretion
taking food into mouth
Mechanical Digestion
physical breakdown of food
1) Mastication
2) Segmentation- churning and mixing movements of the small intestine
Chemical Digestion
molecules broken down by enzymes
movement of food through alimentary canal
1) Peristalsis(segmentation)
Production and release of bile, enzymes, etc.
nutirient transport into blood/lymph vessels
elimination of waste
1) Form ofpropulsion
2) Involves the contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle in the alimentary canal
3) Does not break up the food(simply pushes it along)
1) Local contractions of smooth muscle
2) Involved in mechanical digestion
3) Mixes food with digestive juices
Histology of Digestive System
1) Mucosa
2) Submucosa
3) Muscularis
4) Serosa
secretion and absorption
Vascularized and innervated
1) Inner circular and outer longitudinal layer of muscle
2) Sementation and Peristalsis
Visceral peritoneum
Oral Cavity
1) Bound by the lips, cheeks, palate, and tongue
2) Lips consist of stratified squamous epithelium(reduced keratin)
3) Initial location of mechanical and chemical digestion
Salivary glands
1) Parotid, submandibular and sublingual
2) Ducts
3) Autonomic innervation
4) Produce saliva
Functions of Saliva
1) Wets and Binds Food
2) Moistens mouth
3) Cleans teeth
4) Kills harmful microorganisms
5) Dissolves food chemicals
6) Enzymes begin digestion of starch
Tooth Structure
1) Enamel
2) Dentin
3) Pulp
4) Gingiva
Outermost covering of tooth and hardest substance in the body
Deep to the Enamel and forms bulk of the tooth
1)Innermost portion of tooth
2) Loose connective tissue
3) Contains vessels and nerves
1) Oropharnx and Laryngopharynx(not Nasopharynx)
2) Passageway for food, fluid, and air
3) Stratified Squamous Epithelium
4) Pharyngeal Constrictor muscles- muscles of swallowing
1) Muscular tube
2) Propels swallowed food to stomach
3) Cardiac sphincter
1) Voluntary phase
2) Pharyngeal phase
3) Esophageal phase
Voluntary Phase
1) food and saliva mix up in oral cavity
2) Bolus pushed up and back toward oropharynx
Pharyngeal Stage
1) Soft palate and uvula elevate
2) Bolus enters oropharynx
3) Larynx raises toward epiglottis
4) Involuntary, sequential contraction of pharyngeal constrictors
Esophageal Stage
1) Involuntary
2) bolus passes through esophagus into stomach
Peritoneal Cavity
1) Parietal and Visceral Peritoneum
2) Paritoneal Cavity
3) Mesenteries
1) Double layer of folds of peritoneum
2) Support intraperitoneal organs
Completely surrounded by the visceral peritoneum
Organs that lie directly against the body wall (peritonem missing from one side
Functions of the Stomach
1) Storage
2) Churn food with gastric juice
3) Initiate protein digestion
4) Limited absorption
Histology of the Stomach
1) Surface Mucous Cells
2) Mucous Neck Cells
3) Parietal Cells
4) Chief Cells
5) Enteroendocrine Cells
Surface Mucous Cells
Mucin secretion to protect stomach lining
Mucous Neck Cells
Acidic mucin secretion to maintain acidic conditions
Parietal Cells
1)Hydrochloric acid secretion
2) Intrinsic factor secretion
Chief Cells
Enzyme secretion(pepsinogen)
Enteroendocrine Cells
Hormone secretion (gastrin)
What is the role of Gastric Intrinsic Factor?
To bind Vitamin B12 in the stomach lumen and assist B12 absorption in the small intestine.
Why might malfunctioning GIF cause anemia?
Vitamin B12 is needed for proper RBC development
Hiatel Hernia
Stomach pushes through esophageal hiatus
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
1) Abnormal relaxation or weakening of cardiac shincter
2) Gastric reflux erodes esophageal tissue
Peptic Ulcer
1) Erosion of stomach or duedenal mucosa
2) Helicobacter pylori
Function of Small Intestine
1) Finish chemical digestion
2) Nutrient Absorption
Regions of Small Intestine
1) Duedenum (10 inches)- receives main pancreatic duct and bile duct
2) Jejunum (8 ft)
3) Ileum (11 ft)
The stomach is mostly lined with what kind of epithelium
simple columnar
Modifications for Absorption
1) Circular Folds (plicae circulares)
2) Villi
3) Microvilli
Function of Circular Folds(plicae circulares)
1) Increase surface area for absorption
2) Slows the chyme
1) Located on plicae circulares
2) Move during digestion
3) Enhance absorptive efficiency by increasing surface area
Located on Villi
Histology of Small Intestine
1) Absorptive cells
2) Goblet cells
3) Enteroendocrine cells
4) Submucosal glands
Absorptive Cells
cells of the small intestine that contain capillaries that absorb nutrients
Goblet Cells
secrete mucin to lubricate and protect the intestinal lining
Enteroendocrine Cells of Smaal Intestine
release hormones to aid in absorption
Submucosal Glands
1) Located in the duodenum
2) Secrete alkaline mucus that protects acidic chyme
Regions of Large Intestine
1) Ascending Colon
2) Right hepatic flexure
3) Transvers colon
4) Left Splenic flexure
5) Descending colon
6) Sigmoid colon
7) Rectum
8) Anal canal
Functions of the Large Intestine
1) Absorbs water and electrolytes
2) Force feces towards rectum
Special Structural Features of the Large Intestine
1) Teniae coli
2) Haustra
3) Epiploic appendages
Teniae Coli
1) 3 longitudinal layers of muscle
2) Maintain muscle tone
sacks of bulges
Epiploic appendages
fat filled pouches of visceral peritoneum
1) Rectal Valves- prevent feces from being passes with flats
2) Well developed muscle
3) Able to generate strong contractions
Anal Canal
1) Internal Anal Sphincter
2) External Anal Sphincter
3) Anal sinuses
Functions of Liver
1) Produces bile
2) Detoxifies poisons, metabolites, and drugs
3) Stores excess fats and amino acids
4) Makes the blood proteins
5) Aids in recycling RBC's
Blood Proteins
1) Albumin
2) Globulin
3) Fibrinogen
Functions of Gall Bladder
1) Stores and concentrates bile
A) Cystic duct
B) Bile duct
Crystallization of cholesterol
1) Endocrine and Exocrine Functions
A)Pancreatic islets ( Islets of Langerhans
Pancreatic Islets(Islets of Langerhans
Endocrine glands of Pancreas that secrete:
1) Insulin
2) Glucagon
Exocrine glands, secrete:
1) Trypsin
2) Chemotrypsin
Intestinal Obstruction
Any hindrance to movement of chyme or feces through intestine
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
1) Periodic inflammation of intestinal wall
2) Symptoms include cramping, diarrhea, weight loss, intestinal bleeding
Viral Hepatitis
1) Inflammation of liver
2) Flu-like symptoms and jaundice
Cystic Fibrosis
1) Ducts in pancreas clogged
2) Prevents pancreatic juices from reaching small intestine
Primitive Gut Tube
1) Foregut
2) Migut
3) Hindgut
Organ Buds