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89 Cards in this Set

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What are the usable portions of food?
Nutrients
How does food serve the body?
Provide energy with calories

Provide substances needed for growth, maintenance, repair
What are the 4 basic food groups?
Milk
Meat and protein
Fruit and vegetable
Grains, cereal, pasta, bread
What is the amount of energy that can be obtained from nutrients measured in units called?
Calories
What is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree Celsius?
Calorie
How many calories are in 100 grams of lettuce?
20 Calories
How man calories are in 100 grams of peanuts?
650 Calories
What does the body need calories for?
Energy
What are the 6 types of nutrients needed by the body?
Proteins
Vitamins
Carbohydrates
Fats
Minerals
Water
What nutrient is used to build and repair body parts?
Proteins
What are proteins made up?
Amino acids
(building blocks or protein)
How many amino acids are in the body?
20
The body can make how many amino acids?
Where do the rest come from?
Body makes = 12
Get from diet = 8
The 8 amino acids we get from food are called?
Essential amino acids
List 5 complete proteins
Red meat
Fish
Poultry
Dairy products
Eggs
Incomplete amino acids are missing an essential amino acid. List 3 incomplete amino acids
Rice, cereal, vegetables
What nutrient provides energy?
Carbohydrates
What foods have carbdhydrates?
Vegetables and grains
List 2 types of carbohydrates
Starches and sugars
Where does the body store excess carbohydrates?
Muscles and liver as fat.
Too much carbohydrates causes what?
Weight gain
What nutrient insulates the body against heat loss and helps support and cushion vital organs?
Fat
List 3 sources of fat
Nuts, butter, cheeses
What nutrients help regulate the growth and normal functioning of the body?
Vitamins
Vitamins are micronutrients which means what?
We need only a small amount of vitamins
List 2 kinds of vitamins
Fat soluble
Water Soluble
Where are fat soluble vitamins stored and which ones are they?
Stored in fat
A D E K
Where are water soluble vitamins stored and which ones are they?
Water soluble can not be stored at all and must be eaten every day to replace.
C, B complex (B1,2,6, 12)
What mineral helps keep the body functioning normally?
Minerals
List 2 important minerals.
Iron and calcium
What mineral is an important part of red blood cells. The hemoglobin carries oxygen.
Iron
What mineral is an important part of teeth and bones?
Calcium
What nutrient helps chemical reactions take place in the body?
Water
What nutrient carries substances to and from organs in the bloodstream?
Water
What is the proper body temperature
37 C
How much of the body is water?
55-75%
How much water does a person need a day?
2/4 - 2.8 liters
(10-12 8oz glasses)
What are the 4 flavors the tongue can sense?
Sweet
Sour
Salty
Bitter
Food must be broken down into nutrients by a process called?
Digestion
What does the digestive system do?
Breaks down food into simpler substances for use by the body
Nutrients provide what?
Energy
Growth
Repair
What is the main path that food takes in the DIGESTION OF FOOD?
Mouth
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intesting
What is the main path that food takes in the ABSORPTION OF FOOD?
Villi
Large intestine
Solid waste to rectum and out anus
What helps moisten food and contains a chemical substance called ptyalin?
Saliva
What chemical substance breaks down some of the starches into sugar?
Ptyalin
What is the breaking down of food into simpler substances through chemical processes?
Chemical digestion
What is the breaking down of food into smaller pieces through mechanical means?
Mechanical digestion
What are the front teeth called that bite into food and push into mouth?
Incisors
What teeth shred and tear food and what teeth grind and crush?
Canines (eyeteeth) tear and shred

Pre-molars and Molars grind and crush
What is the small flap of tissue that automatically closes over the windpipe when you swallow?
Epiglottis
What is the J shaped organ of the digestive system?
Stomach
What is the wave of rhythmic muscle contractions that force food down the esophagus?
Perstalsis
What fluid is released in the stomach to churn the food?
Gastric juice
Gastric juice contains what?
Pepsin

Hydrochloric acid
What does Pepsin do?
Begins digestion
What does hydrochloric acid do?
Breaks down some of the complex proteins in food into simpler proteins.
How long does food stay in the stomach?
3-6 hours
Where does food go after the stomach?

How big is this organ?
Small intesting

2.5 cm in diameter and
6 meters long
What 2 organs act as digestive helpers?
Liver and Pancreas
What is the body's largest and heaviest organ?
Liver
What substance does the liver produce?
Bile
(bile is not an enzyme and does not chemically digest food)
Where is bile stored?
Gallbladder
What does bile do?
Helps break up large fat particles into smaller ones.
What is the soft, triangular organ located between the stomach and small intestine?
Pancreas
What does the pancreas produce?
Pancreatic juice which is a mixture a several enzymes
What do the panreatic enzymes do?
Break down proteins, starches, fats
What are the small, fingerlike structures that absorb digested food in the small intestine?
Villi
Undigested food leaves the small intestines and enters what?
Large intestine
What is shaped like a horseshoe and fits over the coils of the small intestine?
How big is it?
Large intestine

6.5 cm in diameter and 1.5 meters long
In the large intestine bacteria makes what vitamins?
Vitamin K and 2 B vitamins
Where is most water in food absorbed?
Large intestine
What happen to materials that are not absorbed in the large intestine?
Become solid waste
What part of the digestive system stores solid waste?
Rectum
Solid wastes are eliminated through an opening called?
Anus
Starches and sugars are what kind of nutrient?
Carbohydrates
Does exercise require more or less calories?
More, because when you exercise, you burn calories and you need to replace these calories for energy
Which nutrient prevents vitamin-deficiency diseases?
Vitamins
Why does the body need water?
For chemical reactions
To carry nutrients around body
Maintain proper temperature of 37 C
Why does the body need calories?
Energy
Iron compounds are important components of a good diet and are needed for the formation of what?
Hemoglobin
Would bread or candy give energy faster?
Candy is higher in sugar than bread
Which vitamin in needed for proper vision?
Vitamin A
Which vitamin is important for blood clotting?
Vitamin K
Which vitamin is important for strong blood vessels?

What foods have it?
Vitamin C


Citrus, tomatoes, green leafy vegetables
What minerals are needed for nerve and muscle function?
Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium
Why are the liver and pancreas called digestive helpers?
They do not digest food but produce substances to help break down food for digestion
Where does chemical digestion take place?
In the mouth - saliva contains ptyalin
Where does mechanical digestion take place?
In the mouth - teeth
How can antibiotics affect the digestive system?
Helpful bacteria in the large intestine are destroyed and the bodys supply of Vit K and B would be used up