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67 Cards in this Set

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Have many nerve endings for touch & pressures. Humans are permanently everted unlike chimps.
Lips or labia
Forms the anterior roof of mouth (it is also the floor of the nasal cavity).
Hard palate
Made of muscle & connective tissue. Is pushed upward by bolus of food & tongue to close off nasal cavities when swallowing.
Soft palate
Fleshy projection in middle of soft palate.
Uvula
Muscular organ attached to floor of mouth to a few bones. Senses sweet, sour, bitter, salty. Moves food under teeth so that mastication can occur
Tongue
Membrane attaching tongue to floor of mouth.
Frenulum
(sometimes a child is born with a short one, causing difficulty speaking)
First set of teeth are called .....
Deciduous, baby or milk teeth
Permanent teeth start coming in at the ages of ....
6 to 12
Teeth used for biting and tearing.
Front teeth: Incisors, canines/eye teeth
Teeth used for grinding & chewing.
Side & back teeth: Premolars
Mixing of food with saliva from salivary glands forms .....
A bolus or wad of food that is then swallowed
Physically breaking down food. Example: Chewing, mixing
Mechanical Digestion
Breakdown of food via enzymes is called
Chemical digestion (very little to none done in the mouth)
Absorbing nutrients into blood stream
Assimilation
Commonly called the gullet or foodtube. Connects pharynx with stomach. Lies behing larynx & trachea. Normally a collapsed muscular tube. Penetrates diaphragm.
Esophagus
Space in diaphragm
Hiatus
If the hiatus (space in diaphragm) widens & allows part of the stomach (cardiac region) to migrate into the thoracic cavity, the result is a
Hiatal hernia (causes esophageal heartburn & indigestion)
Peristalsis is .....
and starts ......
Slow wave-like contraction that moves food through the GI tract. Starts in the esophagus & continues throughout the alimentary canal.
"C" shaped organ that exhibits both mechanical & chemical digestion of food
Stomach
Top part of stomach. Close to the heart. Diaphragm makes a constriction here that acts like a sphincter.
Cardiac region
Part of stomach where enzymes & hydrochloric acid (HC) are produced
Fundus
Primary enzyme secreted in inactive form within fundus
Pepsinogen
When pepsinogen comes in contact with HCI, part of the pepsinogen molecule is cleaved off converting pepsinogen to
Pepsin
(works on breaking down protein). This is an example of chemical digestion.
Pepsin and/or people producing a lot of acid in their stomach even if no food is present is called
an Ulcer
Certain type of bacteria that may cause an ulcer
H. pylori
Part of stomach where (as in the fundus) the bolus of food is broken down & mixed with a lot of fluid produced by stomach wall
Body of stomach
Bolus that has been broken down in fundus and body of stomach that is now a semi-liquid material is called
Chyme
The stomach mixing & remixing chyme in a churning motion is what type of digestion?
Mechanical digestion
Last part of stomach
Pylorus
Between the pylorus & first part of small intestine, there is a sphincter muscle that opens periodically as the stomach churns, propelling small amounts of chyme into the small intestine. The stomach holds the food and offers it "piecemeal" to the small intestine for further digestion. This muscle is called the
Pyloric Sphincter
Stomach folds on inner surface when stomach is empty that give it the ability to expand & hold food is called
Rugae
(even if a big meal, it allows food to be slowly delivered to the intestine for proper digestion)
Small Intestine is also called
Enteron or Ileum
Small intestine is about __ ft long. Stretched out from a cadaver it is over ___ ft long.
6, 20
Small intestine starts at the ___ and ends at the ____
Pyloric sphincter, ileocecal valve
3 small intestine segments
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
The small intestine exposes the chyme to
Various digestive enzymes
Some of the digestive enyzmes found in the small intestine
Amylases, Proteases & Lipases
Some enzymes are produced by the small intestine wall (intestinal glands) and some are delivered to the duodenum from the
Pancreas
- (both secretions from intestinal glands & pancreas contain enzymes that breakdown all 3 food groups)
Enzymes that breakdown complex carbohydrates & sugars into simple sugars such as glucose
Amylases
Enzymes that break down proteins into amino acids
Proteases
Enzymes that break down fats & oils into triglycerides
Lipases
The small intestine receives bile from the
Liver
Bile is delivered through a system of ducts into the the
Duodenum
Bile is made in the liver, but stored in the
Gall bladder
In some people the bile salts settle out & form stones. These usually have to be removed along with the gall bladder. In time, what enlarges to take on the duty of storing the bile?
Bile ducts
What breaks down big globules of fat into small globules thus increasing the surface area for the lipases to attack?
Bile
Where most of the absorption of nutrients occurs.
Small intestine
The inner lining of the small intestine contains small finger-like projections that increase the surface area for absorption of nutrients from lumen (space) of small intestine are called
Villi (one is called villus)
(directly or indirectly enter blood stream & are then sent to all body cells for their use)
Large intestine is also called the
Colon
Ascending colon with its appendix (usually on the right lower side of the abdomen)
Ileocecal valve
Does not have a real digestive function & sometimes gets infected & has to be removed
Appendix
The ascending colon crosses the top of the abdominal cavity as the
Transverse colon
The ascending colon goes down the left side of the abdomen as the
Descending colon
At the end of the descending colon, the colon makes an "S" shape called the
Sigmoid colon
After the sigmoid colon, there is a short, straight piece called the
Rectum
As material reaches the rectum, it is in a more solid state called
Feces
Intestinal infection can cause material to move too quickly through the colon, causing
Diarrhea
If material moves too slowly through the colon, too much water is removed causing feces to become hard & compacted. This is called
Constipation
Most common bacteria living in the human colon. It produces Vitamin K & some B vitamins that are absorbed through the colon wall into our blood stream. In turn, it lives off of our undigested food.
E. Coli
Area of brain that is the control center for feeding
Hypothalamus
Vitamin that clots blood
Vitamin K
2 centers that control feeding
1. Hunger
2. Satiety
Causes a feeling of hunger
Hunger center
Either a full stomach and/or normal to high blood glucose level will stimulate the _____, which will then turn off the hunger center
Satiety Center
Theory that the hypothalamus of each of us is set at a certain body weight
Set Point Theory of Body Weight
Possible variables that determine set point of hypothalamus
Genetics, eating habits, aerobic exercise
What seems to be the best way, so far, to lower the set point & keep fat off
Aerobic exercise