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115 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A collapsed, muscular tube involved in deglutition & peristalsis
Coiled tube attached to the cecum
Contains Brunner's glands in the submucosa.
Produces & secretes bile.
Contains Peyer's patches in the submucosa.
Responsible for ingestion, mastication, & deglutition.
Responsible for churning, peristalsis, storage, & chemical digestion with the enzyme pepsin.
Storage area for bile
gall bladder
Contain acini that release juices containing several digestive enzymes
Passageway for food, fluid, & air; involved in deglutition.
Forms a semi-solid waste material through haustral churning & peristalsis
An activating brush-border enzyme that splits off part of the trypsinogen molecule to form trypsin, a protease
An enzyme that initiates carbohydrate digestion in the mouth
salivary amylase
The principal triglyceride-digesting enzyme in adults.
pancreatic lipase
Stimulates growth of gastic glands & secretion by chief cells in the stomach: a proteolyic enzyme.
Stimulates the flow of pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonates; decreases gastric secretions.
A nonenzymatic fat-emulsifying agent
Causes contraction of the gall blader & stimulates the production of pancreatic juice rich in digestive enzymes.
Inhibits gastrin release.
Stimulates secretion of ions & water by the intestines & inhibits gastric acid secretion.
vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
Microvilli of the small intestine that increase surface area for absorption; also contains some digestive enzymes.
brush border
Finger-like porjections of the mucosa of the small intestine that increase surface area.
Produce hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
parietal cells
Secrete lysosome; help regulate microbial population in the intestines.
Paneth cells
Forces the food to the back of the mouth for swallowing, places food in contact with the teeth.
Aids in limiting the movement of the tongue posteriorly.
lingual frenulum
Produce a fluid in the mouth that helps cleanse the mouth & teeth & lubricates, dissolves, & begins the chemical breakdown of food.
salivary glands
Large mucosal folds in the stomach.
Secrete pepsinogen & gastric lipase in the stomach.
chief cells
Permanent ridges in the mucosa of the small intestine; enhance absorption by increasing surface area & causing chyme to spiral rather than move in a straight line.
circular folds
Stellate reticuloendothelial cells of the liver; destroy worn-out leukocytes & red-blood cells, bacteria, & other foreign matter in the blood draining the GI tract.
Kupffer cells
Inflammation of the appendix; preceeded by obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by chyme, inflammation, a foreign body, a carcinoma of the cecum, stenosis, or kinking of the organ.
failure of the mucosal cells of the small intestine to produce enough lactase resulting in this condition in which undigested lactose in chyme retains fluid in the feces, & bacterial fermentation of lactose results in the production of gases.
lactose intolerance
condition in which bile contains either insufficient bile salts or lecithin or excessive cholesterol; cholesterol crystalizes.
gall stones
Inflammation of the pancreas, as may occur in association with alcohol abuse or chronic gall stones
The forcible expulsion of the content of the upper GI tract (stomach & sometimes duodenum) through the mouth.
In infants, condition in which the muscle fibers of the pyloric sphinter fail to relax normally, so food does not pass easily from the stomach to the small intestine.
In infants, condition in which there is a narrowing of the pyloric sphincter. This must be corrected surgically. (projectile vomiting)
pyloric stenosis
A yellowish coloration of the sclera, skin, & mucous membranes due to a buildup of a yellow compound called bilirubin.
3 types: prehepatic, hepatic, & extrahepatic
Term referring to blood that is hidden; undetectable by the human eye. Usually check feces & urine, screening for colorectal cancer.
occult blood
attack on salivary glands (usually parotid) by the myxovirus. Inflammation & enlargement of the parotid glands.
Result of chewing: a soft flexible, easily swallowed mass of food.
Alternate words for chewing & swallowing
Teeth that begin to errupt at about 6 months of age; 1 pair appearing at about 1 month intervals thereafter until all 20 of them appear.
deciduous teeth
baby teeth
milk teeth
primary teeth
Replace deciduous teeth (lost from 6 to 12 years); Appear generally between the ages of 6 & adulthood . There are 32 of them
Permanent Teeth
The breakdown of large lipid globules into a suspension of droplets. Bile salts do this.
A yellowish, brownish, or olive-green liquid (pH 7.6-8.6) that consists mostly of water & bile acids, bile salts, cholesterol, a phospholipid called lecithin, bile pigments, & several ions. Partially an excretory product & partially a digestive secretion.
Principal bile pigment
conjugated bilirubin
Cells that secrete pepsinogen
chief cells
Result of cell activity: pepsin, the activated form, breaks certain peptide bonds in proteins.
chief cells
Secrete gastric lipase
chief cells
Result of cell activity: Splits short-chain triglycerides into fatty acids & monoglycerides.
chief cells - secreting gastric lipase
Kills microbes in food; denatures proteins; converts pepsinogen into pepsin.
hyydrocloric acid
(from parietal cells)
Secrete hydrochloric acid
parietal cells
Needed for absorption of vitamen B12, which is used in RBC formation (erythropoesis)
intrinsic factor
(from parietal cells)
Secrete intrinsic factor
parietal cells
Forms a protective barrier that prevents digestion of stomach wall.
(from surface mucous cells
mucous neck cells)
Secrete mucus
surface mucous cells
neck mucous cells
Stimulates parietal cells to secrete HCl & chief cells to secrete pepsinogen; contracts lower esophageal sphincter, increases motility of the stomach, & relaxes pyloric sphincter.
(from G cells)
Secrete gastrin
G cells
Macerate food & mix it with gastric juice, forming chyme
mixing waves
(created by muscularis)
Mixing waves
Forces chyme through the pyloric sphincter.
(from muscularis)
Peristalsis in the stomach
Regulates passage of chyme from stomach to duodenum; prevents backflow of chyme from duodenum to stomach.
pyloric sphincter.
Opens to permit passage of shyme inot the duodenum
pyloric sphincter
Distention of stomach, partially digested proteins & caffien in stomach, & high pH of stomach chyme stimulate secretion of this hormone by enteroendocrine G cells located mainly in the mucosa of pyloric antrum of stomach.
Hormone Major effects: Promotes secretion of gastric juice, increases gastric motility, & promotes growth of gastric mucosa.

Minor effects: Constricts lower esophageal sphincter; relaxes pyloric sphincter & ileocecal sphincter.
Acidic (high H+ level) chyme that enters the small intestine stimulates secretion of this hormone by enteroendocrine S cells in the mucosa of the duodenum.
Major hormonal effects: Stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice & bile that are rich in bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)

Minor effects: Inhibits secretion of gastric juice, promotes normal growth & maintenance of the pancreas, & enhances effect of CCK
Partially digested proteins (amino acids), triglycerides, & fatty acids that enter the small intestine stimulate secretion of this hormone by enteroendocrine (named for this hormone) cells in the mucosa of the small intestine; it is also released in the brain
Major Hormonal effects: Stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice rich in digestive enzymes, causes ejection of bile from the gall bladder & opening of the sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla (sphincter of Oddi), & induces satiety (feeling full to satisfaction).

Minor effects: Inhibits gastric emptying , promotes normal growth & maintenance of the pancreas, & enhances effects secretin
Delivers its juice into the duodenum via the its duct.
Produces bile (bile salts) necessary for emulsification & absorption of lipids
Stores, concentrates, & delivers bile into the duodenum via the common bile duct.
gall bladder
Major site of digestion & absorption of nutrients & water in the GI tract.
small intestine
Secrete intestinal juice
intestinal glands
Secrete alkaline fluid to buffer stomach acids, & mucus for protection & lubrication.
duodenal glands
(Brunner's glands)
Microscopic, membrane-covered projections of epithelial cells that contain brush-border enzymes & that increase the surface area for digestion & absorption.
Finger-like projections of mucosa that are the sites of absorbtion of digested food & that increase the surface area for digestion & absorption.
Folds of mucosa & submucosa that increase the surface area for digestion & absorption.
circular folds
Consists of alternating contractions of circular smooth muscle fibers that produce segmentation & resegmentation of sections of the small intestine; mixes chyme with digestive juices & brings food into contact with the mucosa for absorption.
muscularis segmentation
a type of peristalsis
A type of peristalsis consisting of waves of contraction & relaxation of circular & longitudinal smooth muscle fibers passing the length of the small intestine; moves chyme toward ileocecal sphincter.
muscularis: migrating motility complex
Functions of tongue, salivary glands, & teeth - all of which are here. Additionally, the lips & cheeks keep food between the teeth during mastication, & buccal glands lining this produce saliva.
Maneuvers food for mastication, shapes food into a bolus, maneuvers food for deglutition, detects taste & touch sensations, & initiates digestion of triglycerides.
secrete fluid that softens, moistens, & disso.ves food; cleanses mouth & teeth; & initiates the digestion of starch.
Salivary glands
Cut, tear, & pulverize food to reduce solids to smaller particles for swallowing.
Receives a bolus from the oral cavity and passes it into the esophagus
Receives a bolus from the pharynx & moves it into the stomach. This requires relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter & secretion of mucus
Mixing waves macerate food, mix it with secretions of gastric glands (gastric juics), & reduce food to chyme. Gastric juice activates pepsin & kills many microbes in food. Intrinsic factor aids absorption of B12. Serves as a reservoir for food before releasing it into the small intestine.
Juice from this organ buffers acidic gastric juice in chyme (creating propper pH for digestion in the small intestine), stops the action of pepsin from the stomach, & containes enzymes that digest carbohydrates, proteins, triglycerides, & nucleic acids.
Produces bile, which is needed for amulsification of lipids in the small intestine
Stores & concentrates bile * releases it into the small intestine.
gall bladder
Segmentations mix chyme with digestive juices; migrating motility complexes propel chyme toward the ileocecal sphincter; digestive secretions from this + pancreas & liver complete the digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, & nucleic acids; circular folds, villi, & micovilli increase surface area for absorption : site where 90% of nutrients & water are absorbed
small intestine
( duodenum
ileum )
Haustral churning, peristalsis, & mass peristalsis drive the contents of the colon into the rectum; bacteria produces some B vitamens & vitamin K; absorption of some water, ions, & vitamens, defecation.
large intestine
3 Phases of Gastric Secretion & Motility
1. Cephalic phase
2. Gastric phase
3. Intestinal phase
reflexes initiated by sensory receptors in the head
cephalic phase of
gastric secretion
& motility
Once food reaches the stomach, sensory receptors in the stomach initiate both neural & hormonal mechanisms to ensure that gastric secretion & motiliy continue.
gastric phase of
gastric digestion
activation of receptors in the small intestine begins this phase
intestinal phase
Painful ulcer on the mucous membrane of the mouth that affects females more than males, usually between the ages of 10 & 40. It may be an auto-immune reaction or a food allergy.
Canker Sore
In some cases, an auto-immune inflammation of the gall bladder; other cases are caused by obstruction of the cystic duct by bile stones
Distorted or scarred liver as a result of chronic inflammation due to hepatitis, chemicals that destroy hepatocytes, parasites that infect the liver, or alcoholism; the hepatocytes are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue.
Difficulty in swallowing that may be caused by inflammation , paralysis, obstruction , or trauma
AN inflammation of the intestine, particularly the small intestine
Air (gas) in the stomach or intestine, usually expelled through thte anus. If the gas is expelled through the mouth it is called eruction or belching.
Protrusion of all or part of an organ through a membrane or cavity wall, usually the abdominal cavity
Varicose veins in the rectum
Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that exists in 2 forms: Crohn's disease (inflammation of any part of the GI tract) & Ulcerative colitis
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Diseases of the entire gastrointestinal tract in which a person reacts to stress by developing symptoms associated with alternating patterns of diarrhea & constipation.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Gradual demineralization of the enamel & dentin.
Dental Caries
(Tooth Decay)
Collective term for a variety of conditions characterized by inflammation & degeneration of the gingivae, alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, & cementum.
Periodontal Disease
Crater-like lesion that develops in areas of the GI tract exposed to acidic gastric juice. 5-10% of US population develop these. Bacteria - Helicobacter Pylori.
Peptic Ulcer
1. Disease in which sac-like outpouchings of the wall of the colon that occur in places where the muscularis has weakened.

2. Add inflammation (10 to 25% end up here)

Ranks 2nd to lung cancer in males and third after lung cancer & breast cancer in females
Colorectal Cancer
An inflammation of the liver that can be caused by viruses, drugs, & chemicals, including alcohol.