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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
purpose of the digestive system
to break down food into simple molecules that can be used by your cells
simple molecule of proteins
amino acids
simple molecule of carbs
monosaccarides
simple molecules of fats
fatty acids
simple molecules provide
energy
function of the mouth:
chew food to make smaller pieces
incisors:
sharp, used for cutting food
cuspids/bicuspids
grasping and tearing foods
molars
grinding food with large flat surfaces
saliva's function:
makes food easier to swallow and makes it easier to chew
salivary amylase
enzyme in saliva that initiates the breakdown of carbs into monosaccarides
lysozyme
enzyme in saliva that kills bacteria in your mouth
3 salivary glands
parotid, sublingual, and submandibular
pepsin
enzyme in the stomach that initiates breakdown of proteins to amino acids
HCl
hydrochloric acid, a solution in the stomach that provides working condition for pepsin and also kills some bacteria
cardiac sphincter
prevents stomach contents from moving back up the esophagus
pyloric sphincter
prevents chyme from reentering the stomach
small intestine is...and has 3 parts...
20 ft long 1 inch in diameter
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
pancreatic amylase
enzyme from pancreas that finishes breaking down partially digested carbs into monosaccarides
trypsin
enzyme made by pancreas, finishes breaking down partially digested proteins into amino acids
lipase
enzyme from the pancreas that breaks down fats into fatty acids
sodium bicarbonate
solution made by pancreas that nuetralizes Hydrochloric acid in the chyme
Bile
solution made by liver and changes fats into smaller pieces, stored in the gallbladder
function of the jejunum and ileum
absorb the simple molecules (nutrients) so that they can go to the cells in your body
villi
jejunum and ileum have this, it makes the surface area larger, so that there will be a greater absorbtion rate
large intestine is...and has 3 parts..
5 ft long, 2 1/2 inch diameter.
caecum, colon, rectum
function of the large intestine
to remove water from undigested materials, which will produce a concentrated waste called feces
Bolus
food once it comes into contact with saliva
epiglottis
closes and prevents bolus from entering the trachea while swallowing
esophagus
to get food from your mouth to your stomach
order of digestive system
mouth-esophagus-stomach-small intestine-large intestine
chyme
food once it has passed through the stomach