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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is digestion?
Mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods into forms cell membranes can absorb.
Accessory Organs
Salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
Salivary glands secrete...
Saliva
The liver produces...
Bile.
The gallbladder stores...
Bile
What does the pancreas produce and secrete?
Digestive juice (Pancreatic juice)
What is the function of accessory organs?
To secrete different substances to help breakdown food.
Structures in the alimentary canal.
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus.
Function of the mouth.
Mechanical breakdown of food, begins chemical digestion of carbohydrates.
Function of pharynx.
Connect mouth with esophagus.
The stomach secretes...
Acid and enzymes.
Main site of nutrient absorption.
Small intestine.
This structure absorbs water and electolytes to form feces.
Large intestine.
Pathway to the stomach.
Esophagus.
What does the muscular layer of the esophagus do?
Contract.
What does the epiglottis do?
Prevents food from entering the trachea.
Define peristalsis.
Wave like contractions that push food.
This structure closes and keeps acidic substances from entering the stomach.
Esophageal sphincter.
What do chief cells secrete?
Pepsinogen.
What do parietal cells secrete?
Hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor.
What do goblet cells secrete?
Mucous
What are the layers of the stomach?
An outer longitudal layer and an inner circular layer.
Function of small intestine.
Absorption.
The simpler the substance, the further more up/down (?) in the small intestine.
Up
Amino acids and carbohydrates are absorbed through...
Villi
Structures in the small intestine.
Duodenum, jejum, ileum
What does the intrinsic factor do?
Protects B12 from acid in stomach so it can be absorbed.
This structure absorbs water and some electrolytes
Large intestine.
Parasympathetic / Sympathetic
Increases activity of digestive system / inhibits certain digestive actions.
Substances absorped in the stomach.
Some water, certain salts, certain lipid soluble drugs, alcohol.
Types of teeth and function.
Incisors - rip and tear
Canine
Premolar
Molars - Grind
Pancreas' dual function.
Endocrine - release of insulin and glucagon
Exocrine - secretes digestive juice
What is bile made up of?
Water, bile salts, electolytes, cholesterol.
Function of bile salts.
Aid digestive enzymes and help absorb fat soluble vitamins.
What is segmentation.
Circular muscular fibers close up so chyme can be better absorbed.
Layers of the wall of the alimentary canal.
Mucosa - protects, epithelium
Submucosa - Nourished surrounding tissues, connective
Muscular Layer - Movement of tube, smooth
Serosa - Protection, epithelium
Controls secretions
Submucosal plexus
Increases surface area for absorption
Villi