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65 Cards in this Set

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Derived from Greek word "life." ___ refers to organisms and substances which contribute to intestinal microbial balance. They are beneficial or "friendly" intestinal bacteria.
Probiotic
Lack of nutrient absorption from the intestinal tract into the bloodstream.
Malabsorption
A microflora (good bacteria) that acts as a digestive aid and lives in your intestines helping your body fight disease.
Acidophilus
An enzymatic aid in the digestion of proteins, carbs, and fats. Helps promote intestinal health. The most commonly used ___ ___ are hydrochloric acid, pancreatin, and enzyme preparations. Without proper digestion, the molecules that have not been ingested completely can be inappropriately absorbed into the systemic circulation causing various diseases and the development of food allergies.
Digestive Aids
Microscopic germs. Some ___ are "harmful" and can cause disease, while other "friendly" ___ protect the body from harmful invading organisms
Bacteria
A substance released by the liver into the intestines for the digestion of fats.
Bile
A process by which nutrients are absorbed through the intestinal tract into the bloodstream to be used by the body. If the nutrients are not absorbed, the body becomes deficient in building and healing substances.
Absorption
Inflammation of the gums surrounding the teeth.
Gingivitis
Inflammation of the liver usually resulting in jaundice. May be caused by a bacterial or viral infection, parasitic infestation, alcohol, drugs, toxins, or transfusion of incompatible blood. Can be life-threatening. Severe ___ may lead to cirrhosis and chronic liver dysfunction.
Hepatitis
An inorganic acidic compound, excreted by the stomach, that aids in digestion.
Hydrochloric Acid (HCI)
The "friendly" bacteria present in the intestines that are essential for the digestion and metabolism of certain nutrients.
Intestinal Flora
Pertaining to the stomach, small and large intestines, colon, rectum, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder.
Gastrointestinal
Distention of the stomach or other intestinal tract parts with air or other gases.
Flatulence
Inflammation of the stomach lining.
Gastritis
Inflammation of the stomach and the intestines
Gastroenteritis
Breach in lining of the digestive tract due to excess acid, occurring in the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum.
Peptic Ulcer
Feelling that one is about to vomit
Nausea
A condition caused by elevation of bilirubin (yellowish bile pigment) in the body and characterized by yellowing of the skin.
Jaundice
Recurrent chronic abdominal pain with constipation and or diarrhea caused by abnormal contractions of colon muscles.
IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome)/ Spastic Colon
A condition in which the nutrients found in food are not absorbed by the body.
Intestinal Malabsorption
Insufficient gastric acid output
Hypochlorhydria
Enlargement of the liver
Hepatomegaly
Pain rising from abdomen to throat, often accompanied by bitter fluid in the mouth.
Heartburn/ Pyrosis
Hard mass of bile pigments, cholesterol, and calcium salts in the gallbladder.
Gallstone
Infrequent, difficult, often painful bowel movements with hard feces: irregularity.
Constipation
Any inflammation of the colon, causing diarrhea and lower abdominal pain.
Colitis
The stagnation of bile within the liver
Cholestasis
Presence of gallstones
Cholelithiasis
Inflammation of the gallbladder
Cholecystitis
Psychogenic syndrome of overeating followed by vomiting.
Bulimia
Excess bile pigment in blood that causes jaundice.
Bilirubinemia
Extreme loss of appetite, especially in adolescent females, causing severe weight loss and starvation.
Anorexia Nervosa
Loss of appetite
Anorexia
Severe dysentery (diarrhea with blood and mucus in feces) caused by protozoan amoebas.
Amebic Dysentery
Swallowing of air.
Aerophagy
Emergency condition caused by damage to one or more abdominal organs that results in intense pain and shock.
Acute Abdomen
Leaving a burning sensation in the mouth.
Acrid
Absence of hydrocholoric acid in the stomach
Achlorhydria
Periodontal disease
Pyorrhea
Vomiting
Regurgitation
Watery, slightly acidic secretion of salivary glands that moistens food and initiates its breakdown.
Saliva
An intestinal disease in the tropics, due to infestation of blood flukes, that causes anemia, diarrhea, dysentery, and cirrhosis; snail fever.
Schistosomiasis
Benign growth on mucous membranes especially in the nose, ear, or stomach.
Polyp
Successive contractions of tubular wall.
Peristaltic Waves
Successive muscular contractions of the intestines, which move food through the gastrointestinal tract.
Peristalsis
Applied to gastric secretions and areas affected by them.
Peptic
The microbial inhabitants of a particular region (eg. the colon)
Microflora
Cavity within a tubular structure.
Lumen
Pertaining to the liver
Hepatic
An enlarged vein in the anus wall, especially due to prolonged constipation or diarrhea, characterized by fissure, painful swelling, and bleeding.
Hemorrhoid/ Piles
Vomiting; vomited matter
Emesis
Saclike out-pouching of the wall of the colon.
Diverticulum
Process of breaking down large particles and high molecular-weight substances into small molecules.
Digestion
Aids excretion of bile by the liver, so there is a greater flow of bile.
Choleretic
Agent that stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder.
Cholecystokinetic
Intestinal gas
Flatus
Crack in membrane lining
Fissure
Digestive waste products
Feces
Infection of the intestinal tract that causes severe diarrhea mixed with blood and mucus.
Dysentery
Digestive disorder with abdominal pain and gas after eating, sometimes with nausea and vomiting.
Dyspepsia/ Indigestion
Condition characterized by the existence of diverticular sacs at weak points in the walls of the alimentary tract especially the intestine.
Diverticulosis
Colonic diverticulosis with inflammation.
Diverticulitis
Frequent bowel evacuation, especially of soft or liquid feces.
Diarrhea
Natural anticoagulant produced by liver cells as a polysaccharide.
Heparin
The cells in the pancreas, which manufacture insulin.
Beta Cells