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146 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
when does the digestive system start
when you become aware of the aroma or when yuou see a food you know will taste good
what happens just by smelling
you begin to salivate
as a result of the reactions you
feel hungry
how long does it take for your digestive system to do its job
20 hours
food is changed to what
substances your body uses for energy and survival
what forms the digestive organs
smooth muscle
what does the blood do
ditributes nutrients carbs proteins fats vitamins and minerals through intestines to body
what is the tube-type digestive system
enters mouth passes long tube exits through anus****
each animal's digestive tract is
specially tailored to break down the kinds of foods it eats
food is the body's
nutrients&**** provide the body with
energy repairs itself
how does food change
into a form body can absorb into bloodstream and use
amino acids****
simple sugars
fatty acids and glycerol
unusable parts of food will
be passed out of body as waste****
digestive system breaks down food into
nutrients cells**** can use
how healthy our diet is as well as exercise and reponsible lifestyle choices determines
how well our machine runs and how good we feel
amyl/o ***
stomat/o ****
digestive tract referred to as
gastrointestinal tract*****
adult digestive tract is
about 30 feet long
food is broken down into
microscopic particles or molecules
separated by
successive digestive organs into nutrients and waste matter
nutrients are passed through
channels in digestive system's intestinal wall to blood stream
bloodstream distributes nutrients to
nourish every cell within body
digestive system consists of
individual organs that perform different functions
digestive tract begins with
alimentary canal
long tube of muscle tissue and blood vessels runs from mouth down into stomach
process of digestion ends at
anus waste matter exits
saliva does what
moistens food for easy swallowing
what is Amylase
found in saliva breaks down carbs *******found in food before it leaves mouth
muscular tube in throat called
pouch-like organ located in upper middle of abdomen
stomach stores
food mixing it with acids and enzymes
adult stomach hass a volume of
one fifth of a cup but it can expand to hold more than 8 cups of food
stomach empties into
small intestine digests food chemically so it can be absorbe into bloodstream
small intestine made up of
duodenum C-shaped
jejunum coinling midsection
ileum final section leads into large intestine
inner wall of small intestine is covered with
microssscopic fingerlike projections called VILLI
liver beneath ribcage right upper part of abdomen

gallbladder hidden just below liver

pancreas beneath stomach
produce enzymes***** and substances travel via special ducts directly to small intestine to aid in digestion
liver plays major role in
utilization of nutrients when they arrive in blood from small intestine
large intestine is made up of
3 parts
what are they
cecum small sac-like section of bowel at end appendix hangs

colon extends from cemum up right side of abdomen across upper abdomen down left side of ab connecting to

rectum terminates at anus
cecum and colon are
about 5 feet long
5 inches long
waste products move along length of large intestine water**** is
final products solid waste called
rectum stores
feces until body is ready to eliminate it
salivary glands
locatged under tongue and lower jaw
flow of saliva set in motion
by brain reflex
brain sends impulses through nerves that control salivary glands
sharp-edged teeth
chop and tear food
flatter molars
grind it up
chewing begins mechanical process
of breaking down meal
as we chew
saliva softens and moistens food
enzymes in saliva
break starches into simpler sugars
voluntary coordinated muscle movement

passes food into throat or pharynx
shared passageway for food and air *******
5 inches long
reflexively closes windpipe while food is being swallowed
food then travels into
waves of contractions
force food down through muscular tube to stomach
involuntary muscular action controlled by nervous system
at end of esophagus muscular valve called
sphincter allows food to enter stomach
water salt sugars and alcohol absorbed directly through
stomach wall
peristalsis in stomach
churns food back and forth mixing it with mucus and gastric juices
gastric juices contain
enzymes and hydrocchloric acid acidic environment necesssary for stomach digestion
gastric glands in stomach lining produce 3 quarts per day of
digestive juices
food ready to leave stomach called
chyme thick liquid
small muscle outlet of stomach called
pylorus keeps chyme in stomach until right consistency pass into small intestine
chyme squirted down into duodenum of small intestine by
action of peristalsis
majority of nutritional absorption occurs in
small intestine
pancreas and liver connect with small intestine send secretions called
pancreatic *******juice contains enzymes help digest carbs proteins and fats and bile
breaks down and aid in absorption of fat
bile produced in liver stored in
gallbladder sent to small intestine through bile dukct
pancreas contributes
sodium bicarbonate ****** salt neutralizewes stomach acid
breaks down carbs into sugars
lipase with bile breaks down
fats into fatty acids and glycerol
breaks down proteins into amino acids
once broken down dissolved and absorbed directly into
bloodstream through walls of small intestine
along with vitamins and minerals
process of breaking down food and absorbed into bloodstream called
work of digestion almost finished when
food reaches large intestine
large intestine's main function is to
remove water from undigested matter and form feces to be eliminated
contents of small intestine enter
cecum first part of large intestine
cecum passes contents to
colon comprises majority of large intestine
fluids and salts absorbed in
ascending colon******
transverse colon removes
more water
descending colon******
holds resulting waste
bacteria in colon aid digestion
of remaining food products
final waste product
feces stored in
exits body through
sphincter at anus
inflammatory bowel disease
cause significant discomfort and harm to gi tract chronic condition
difficulty in swallowing

difficulty passing food from mouth to stomach
common all age groups especially elderly
dysphagia may be caused by
tumor or progressive neurological disorder
see an otolaryngologist head and neck surgeon
process of swallowing has
four stages
stage 1***
oral preparation
food or liquid manipulated and chewed inpreparation for swallowing
stage 2
during oral stage tongue propels food or liquid to back of mouth starting sswallowing response
stage 3****
pharyngeal stage
food or liquid is quickly passed through pharynx canal that connects mouth with esophagus into esophagus or swallowing tube
stage 4***
esophageal stage food or liquid passes through esophagus into stomach
first and second stages have
some voluntary control
stages 3 and 4
occur by themselves without conscious input
common causes of dysphagia
gastroesophageal reflux (stomach acid moves up esophagus to pharynx

poor teeth illfitting dentures common cold

stroke progressive neurologic disorder tracheostomy tube paralyzed unmoving vocal cord tumor surgery
congentital malformations of esophagus
tracheoesophagel fistula **** abnormal connection between esophagus and trachea

esophageal atresia esophagus dead end no connecting to stomach
detected soon after birth requires surgical repair
noncongenital disorders of esophagus
esophagitis ****** inflammation of esophagus infection meds caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD weakening of lower esophageal sphincter allows acidic contents of stomach to reflux up into esophagus

result inflammation and tissue damage of esophagus
anal atresia****
absense or abnormal positioning of anal opening VATER syndrome congenital vertebral anal tracheal esophageal limb heart and kidney abnormalities
intestinal malrotation****
small intestine abnormally rotates during fetal devel. may kink or completely twist volvulus bowel obstructed blood supply to intestine is cut off surgery swe bowel down
pyloric stenosis
pylorus muscle controlling movement of food out of stomach and into small intestines is thickened food prevented from exiting stomach projectile vomiting limited bowel movements dehydration boys more not at birth 3 weeks of age surgery
gastrointestinal infections
common in children viruses enterovirus rotavirus bacteria salmonella shigella campylobacter E. coli parasites vomiting diarrhea
stools loose and watery muscle contractions move contents too quickly not enough time for water to be absorbed more than 2 days lose salt and water dehydrated bacterial vbiral infections food poisoning lactose intol stress contamin water
inflammation of appendix appendage of colon lower right side of abdomen abdominal pain fever ****vomiting 7% us pop 11-20yrs most common
part of intesstine slides into next section intestinal obstruction cutting off blood supply to bowel abdominal pain vomiting lethargy currant jelly stool younger than 2yrs enema radiologist or surgery
gastritis peptic ulcers
peptic ulcer in esophagus stomach or duodenum
gastric ulcer in stomach******
all are irritation of mucous membrane of gi tract from hyposecretion of hydrochloric acid and pepsin digests protein
describe when bacterium helicobacter pylon or chronic use of drugs meds weaken protective mucous coating of stomach and duodenum
allows acid to get through to lining beneath inflammation gastritis peptic ulcers wores or holes that form in lining
inflammatory bowel disease
chronic inflammation of intestines affectss older children adol adults\
2 types of inflammatory bowel disease
ulcerative colitis****** affects just rectum and large intestine

Crohn's disease can affect whole gi tract mouth to anus

chronic abdominal pain intermittent severe diarrhea bloody weight loss poor growth stress treated with meds
contents of intestines do not move along fast enough infrequent painful emptying of bowels wast sstay in large intestine too long too much water removed
inflammation of pancreas large gland behind stomach close to duodenum
pancreas secretes digestive ewnzymes to small intestine through tube pancreatic duct. enzymes digest fats proteins and carbs
releases hormones insulin and glucagon in bloodstream
cystic fibrosis
chronic inherited ****illness involve lungs affects pancreas
mucus blocks passageways of pancreas prevents digestive juices enter child's intestines becuase intestines cannot absorb fats and proteins nutrients pass out unused malnutrition
inflammation of liver infections viruses hepatitis A,B,C cytomegalovirus CMV
Epstein-Barr virus mononucleosis chemical poison hepatitis damage no blood supply
metabolic liver diseases
Wilson's disease abnormal functioning of liver causses accumulation of copper in body's tissue
inflammation of gallbladder gallstones \
adults or children with sickle cell disease long-term meds
abdominal CT****
Computed tomography x-ray crossection pictures computerized axial tomography CAT
uppere endoscopy
swallow thin flexibe lighted tube endoscope transmits image inside esophagus stomach and duodenum examine lining also blows air into stomach expands folds to examine
can see inflammation bleeding can also do biopsy

look inside sesophagus stomach and duodenum first part of small intestine
why swallowing difficulties nausea vomiting reflux bleeding indigestion ab pain chest pain
upper gastrointestinal
upper GI series
barium swallow
x-rays diagnose esophagus stomach duodenum small intestine
can show blockage abnormal growth ulcer \
drink barium thick white milkshake like liquid
coats lining show clearly
can see ulcers scar tissue abnormal growths hernias
fluoroscope radiologist watch digestive system work as barium moves
abdominal ****ultrasound
imaging procedure of internal organs of abdomen including liver gallbladder spleen pancreas kidneys
evaluated with Doppler tech
high-frequency sound waves reflect off body structures picture
no ionizing radiation
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography ERCP
liver gallbladder bile ducts and pancreas
liver makes liquid called bile helps with digestion\
gallbladdere small pear shaped organ stores bile until needed
bile ducts tubs carry bile from liver to gallbladder and small intestine sometimes called biliary tree
pancreas large gland produces chemicals help digestion and hormones insulin
ERCP diagnoses
bile ducts gallstones inlammatory strictures scars, leaks and cancer
combines us of x-rays and endoscope inject dyes into ducts in biliary tree and pancreas
liver biopsy
special needle used remove tissue from liver look for damage disease only if liver does not work properly
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography PTCA
fluoroscopic x-ray projects images on tv exam of bile ducts inside and ouside liver contrast medium injected directly liver bile duct
view anus and anal canal
barium enema GI series
lower GI series x-rays diagnose in large intestine includes colon and rectum
abnormal growths ulcers spolyps diverticula colon cancer

barium into colon see size and shape of colon and rectum
look in large intestine from rectum up through colon to lower end of small intestine see inflamed tissue abnormal growths ulcers and bleeding
diagnose changes in bowel habits cancer
flexible**** sigmoidoscopy
look inside of large intestine from rectum through last part of colon(sigmoid descending colon)
find cause diarrhea abdominal pain or constipation cancer
can see bleeding inflammation abnormal growths ulcers in descending colon and rectum
procedure for flexible sigmoidoscopy
lie on left side on exam table insert flexible lighted tube into rectum into colon
tube called
transmits image of
inside of rectum and colon examine lining of organs blows air into organ inflates them to see better
FOB test*****
fecal occult blood test checks for blood unseen
Liver function tests****
Alkaline Phosphatase****
Enzyme test done on serum to detect liver disease
Serum bilirubin
tests for level of bilirubin. High levels indicate jaundice effect****
Stool guaiac****
Hemoccult test to determine presence of blood in the feces