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82 Cards in this Set

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what chops off the last amino acids and ignores identity?
carboxypeptidase
what does cholecystokinin stimulate?
release of bile
basic functional unit of the liver?
hepatic lobule
what are hepatic sinusoids?
leaky capillaries
what breaks up peptide chains to individual amino acids?
trypsin
what protects the hepatic duct?
sphincter of odie
whatglands line the pancreas?
islets of langerhans
fluid that contains amylase
serous fluid
fluid that produces stringy substance that binds and acts as a lubricant
mucus or mucin
largest salivary gland
parotid
secretions of the parotid salivary gland drain through what?
stensen's ducts or parotid ducts
secretes primarily serous cells, but some mucins
submandibular salivary glands
submandibular secretions drain through what?
wharton's ducts or submandibular ducts
smallest of salivary glands
sublingual
where do secretions of sublingual salivary gland drain
sublingual ducts or rivinus ducts
what does salivca contain
IgA immunoglobulins and lysozymes
what is the function of saliva
control population of oral bacteria
structure that contains secretory cells of mucous glands
lamina propria
naroow band of smooth muscles
muscularis mucosae
network of nerves and scattered neurons
plexus of meissner or submucosal plexus
layer of dense connective tissue, contains smooth muscles, scattered lymphoid tissue, nerve endings, lymphatic and blood vessels
lamina propria
visceral peritoneum is also called what
serosa
most extensive of the stores bile and concentrates it by absorbing water of ions
gallbladder
guards common bile duct and pancreatic duct
sphincter of oddi
the condition of having gallstones
choletitiasis
condition of enlarged gallstones
chlecystitis
surgery to remove large gallstones
cholycystectomy
intestinal hormone that stimulates gallbladder contraction, relaxes the sphincter, and squirt bile to small intestine
cholecystokinin
what are the permanent transverse folds
plicae
T/F: defecation is voluntary
FALSE: both voluntary and involuntary
what is the function of plicae
increase surface area for absorption
sphincter of oddi remains contracted unless what happens?
stimulated by cholecystokinin
crystals of insoluble minerals and salts
gallstones
what triggers release of cholecystokinin
presence of protein and fat in small intestine
what are the divisions of the large intestine
cecumn and colon
specialized secretory cells deep in crypts of lieberkuhn
paneth cells
both an endocrine and exocrine gland, but primarily endocrine producing digestive enzymes and buffers
pancreas
what is the duct from the pancreas to the duodenum
duct of wirsung
located outside duodenal ampulla, may branch from the pancreatic duct independently
duct of sartorini
enzyme that splits molecules of starch or glycogen into disaccharides
pancreatic alpha amylase or carbohydrase
breaks down nucleic acids to nucleotides
nucleases
in the process of being hydrolized, polypeptides become what?
oligopeptides
what is the largest gland in the body
liver
liver is enclosed by a fibrous capsule covered by what
visceral peritoneum
typically, the liver has what 4 lobes
left lobe, right lobe, caudate, and quadrate
seperates right and left loves of liver
falciform ligament
fibrous remnant of fetal umbilical vein that runs along the falciform ligament
round ligament of ligamentum teres
functional units of the liver
hepatic lobules
leaky capillaries that seperate hepatocytes
hepatic sinusoids
large phagocytic cells in hepatic sinusoids
hepatic macrophages or kupffer cells
remove bacteria and foreign bodies that gain entrance through the portal vein
hepatic sinusoids
brings newly absorbed nutrients into the sinusoids and nourishes hepatocytes
portal vein
what are the major funtions of liver
carbhydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, and protein metabolism
where is cholesterol synthesized
liver
liver stores glycogen, iron, and what vitamins
A, D, E, K, AND B12
component of bile for emulsification
lecithin
contains water, bile salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, and various electrolytes
bile
what are the 2 components of bile pigment
bilirubin and biliverdin
in the process of enterohepatic circulation, what happens to bile salts
they are conserved, reabsorbed and distributed back to liver for synthesis of new bile
what layer is the plexus of nerves in
submucosa
in carbohydrate digestion, what are the enzymes involved
maltase make 2 glucose molecules, sucrase makes glucose and fuctose, and lactase make glucose and 1 galactose [G-G,G-F,G-G]
2 ways epithelium absorbs monosaccharides
facilitated diffusion and contransport mechanism
means of monosaccharide absorption that requires no energy and moves one molecule or ion at a time
facilitated diffusion
means of monosaccharide absorption that uses energy and moves more than one molecule or ion at a time--CAN OCCUR ANY TIME
contransport mechanism
enzymes that break triglycerides into fatty acids and monoglycerides
lingual and pancreatic lipase
large molecule created when coated with protein; it's absorbed by lacteal when goes to blood stream
chylomicrons
in protein digestion and absorption, what is the most important enzyme?
caroxypeptidase
what are micelles
lipid-bile salt complexes
main function of liver
filter and process nutrient-rich blood delivered to it
removes amino acids from end of polypeptide (amino end)
amino peptidase
splits dipeptides and releases last 2 amino acids
dipeptidase
two types of vitamin absorption
fat and water soluble
where are minerals absorbed?
along entire length of small intestine
what are lymphatic capillaries that are more permeable than blood capillaries
lacteals
forms and stores feces until defecation occurs
large intestine
synthesizes b complex vitamins and most of vitamin k in liver
bacterial flora
collects and stores chyme and begins process of compaction
cecum
largest portion of large intestine
colon
3 longitudinal ribbons of smooth muscle in the colon
teniae coli
when teniae coli contract, they form pouches known as
haustra
inner anal sphincter is made of what?
smooth muscles
external anal sphincter is made of
skeletal muscles