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105 Cards in this Set

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WHAT IS THE FUNCITON OF THE LIVER?
secretes bile that is stored in the gall bladder and emulsifies fat
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE PANCREAS?
secretes pancreatic juice (bicarbonate) that neutralizes acid in the intestine and contains proteases and lipases
NO. OF KCAL/G OF A LIPID?
9
WHAT IS A FATTY ACID?
a long carbon chain with a carboxlic acid on the (alpha) end and a methyl on the omega end.
EXAMPLE OF A PHOSPHOLIPID
Lecithin
WHAT IS LECITHIN?
A phospholipid, an emulsifying agent found in eggs
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN LIPIDS ARE DIGESTED AND ABSORBED?
- emulsified by bile to form micelles
- small chain FAs are absorbed directly into the blood
- long chain FAs are absorbed into the lymph
EXAMPLES OF ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
linoleic and linolenic (omega-3)
WHERE DOES CHOLESTEROL COME FROM?
- produced in the body (in the liver)
- ingested from dietary sources (animal products)
HOW MANY KCAL/GRAM DO CARBOHYDRATES HAVE?
4
WHAT IS A MONOSACCHARIDE?
the simplest form of a carbohydrate.
WHAT ARE THE 4 MONOSACCHARIDES?
- glucose
- fructose
- galactose
- mannose
WHAT ARE THE 3 DISACCHARIDES?
- sucrose
- maltose
- lactose
WHAT MONOSACCHARIDES MAKE UP SUCROSE?
glucose + fructose
WHAT MONOSACCHARIDES MAKE UP MALTOSE?
glucose + glucose
WHAT MONOSACCHARIDES MAKE UP LACTOSE?
glucose + galactase
WHAT ARE OLIGOSACCHARIDES?
3-10 sugar chains
WHAT ARE EXAMPLES OF OLIGOSACCHARIDES?
- raffinose
- stachyose
WHAT ARE POLYSACCHARIDES?
- starch
- glycogen
WHAT IS STARCH?
- 3,000 - 10,000 glucose units
- the storage form of carbohydrates in plants
NAME TWO EXAMPLES OF STARCH?
- amylase
- amylopectin
WHAT IS GLYCOGEN?
made of 3,000 - 60,000 glucose units and are highly branched
the storage form of carbohydrates in animals
WHAT ARE NON-STARCH POLYSACCHARIDES?
fibers
WHAT ARE FIBERS?
dietary compounds that are not enzymatically digested by mammalian enzymes.
WHAT IS THE INSOLUBLE FIBER?
cellulose
WHAT IS THE SOLUBLE FIBER?
pectin
WHAT ARE THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF FIBER?
- relieves constipation
- diverticulosis (pockets in the colon wall)
- colon cancer
- heart disease
- obesity
WHAT IS THE ESTIMATE ENERGY REQUIREMENT (EER)?
the total calories needed to maintain current body weight and is based on gender, age, weight, height, and physical activity
WHAT ARE THE KCAL/GRAM RATIOS FOR CARBOHYDRATES, PROTEIN, FAT, AND ALCOHOL?
carbs = 4 kcal/g
protein = 4 kcal/g
fat = 9 kcal/g
alcohol = 7 kcal/g
WHAT ARE ENERGY REQUIREMENTS BASED ON?
- basal metabolic rate
- physical activity
- thermic effect of food
WHAT IS THE BASAL METABOLIC RATE?
the energy needed to just stay alive when at rest, fasting, and at room temperature
WHAT IS THE THERMIC EFFECT OF FOOD?
the energy needed for digestion absorption and transport of nutrients
WHAT ARE PROTEINS?
long chains of amino acids
WHEN DOES DENATURATION OF A PROTEIN OCCUR?
occurs under extreme temperatures, acid, base, mechanical breakup, and alcohol
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF A PROTEIN IN THE BODY?
- growth and tissue maintenence (for which all amino acids must be present)
- energy
WHAT HAPPENS TO PROTEIN BEFORE IT CAN BE USED FOR ENERGY?
It must be deaminated, then the carbon chain is used for energy
WHAT DOES GLUCOGENIC AA YEILD?
glucose
WHAT DOES KETOGENIC AA YEILD?
acetyl CoA used to make fats or enter TCA(?)
WHAT ARE THE 3 AMINO ACID CATEGORIES?
- essential (cannot be synthesized to the extent needed by the body)
- semi-essential (conditionally essential, produced from an essential)
- non-essential ( can be formed wholy from precursor if suficient N is present)
HOW DO YOU DECIDE IF A PROTEIN IS COMPLETE OR INCOMPLETE?
- incomplete is missing at least on EAA (most vegetable proteins and gelatin)
- complete has at least 33% of EAA (most animal proteins and selected plants)
- based on kind, amount, and proportion of AAs
WHAT IS A LIMITING AMINO ACID?
AA is present in smallest amount (legumes - methionine, wheat, nuts, seeds - lysine)
WHAT ARE THE FUNCITONS OF WATER?
- structural component of all cells
- hydolysis of digestion
- transport of nutrients
- medium for many biological reations
- temperature regulation
- collection and removal of waste products
- lubricant
WHAT ARE VITAMINS AND MINERALS? (JUST VITAMINS?)
organic substances that are essential for growth, development, and maintenance of health and required in small amounts in the diet of animals
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN A?
functions in vision, skin integrity and growth, cancer protection, and enhancement of immune response
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY?
leads to blindness and xerophalia
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN A TOXICITY?
tertological effects and liver toxicity
WHAT IS THE ACTIVE FORM OF VITAMIN D?
cholecaliciferol; it is converted in the skin with exposure to the sun.
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF VITAMIN D?
helps in calcium metabolism and enhances absorption
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY?
rickets and osteomalacia
WHAT ARE TEH SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN D TOXICITY?
hypercalcemia
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF VITAMIN K?
it is a coenzyme required for blood clotting cascade
WHAT IS ANOTHER NAME FOR VITAMIN K2?
menaquinone
WHAT ARE THE B VITAMINS?
- biotin
- vitamin B6
- pantothenic acid
- riboflavin
- thiamin
- folic acid
WHERE IS AVIDIN FOUND AND WHAT DOES IT DO?
egg white and it binds to avidin
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN B6 DEFICIENCY?
sensory neuropathy
WHAT IS THE RDA OF NIACIN?
16 mg/d - men
14 mg/d - women
WHAT IS THE RDA OF THIAMIN?
1.2 mg/d - men
1.1 mg/d - women
WHAT IS THE RDA FOR FOLIC ACID?
400 ug/d - men and women
WHAT IS VITAMIN B1 ALSO KNOWN AS?
thiamin
WHAT IS VITMAIN B2 ALSO KNOWN AS?
riboflavin
WHAT IS THE RDA OF VITAMIN B12?
2.4 ug/day - men and women
WHAT IS ANOTHER NAME FOR VITAMIN B12?
cobalamine
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN B12?
protein and fat metabolism and DNA formation
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY?
pernicious anemia
WHAT ARE THE SOURCES OF VITAMIN B12?
animal products
WHAT IS THE RDA OF VITAMIN C?
90 mg/day - male
75 mg/day - female
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF BORON DEFICIENCY?
weak bone
WHAT INHIBITS CALCIUM ABSORPTION?
phytates and oxalates
WHAT ARE THE SOURCES OF CHROMIUM?
whole grains and yeast
WHAT DOES CHROMIUM INTAKE AFFECT? (?)
glucose tolerance factor
WHAT DOES CHROMIUM DEFICIENCY CAUSE?
diabetes and nerve degeration
IN CATTLE, WHAT DOES COBALT DEFICIENCY CAUSE?
anemia
WHERE IS COBALT FOUND?
animal foods
WHAT DOES COBALT TOXICITY LEAD TO?
heart failure (in association with alcohol intake)
WAHT IS THE RDA OF COBALT?
there is none
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF COPPER?
- prevention of anemia
- pigmentation
- oxidation reactions
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF COPPER DEFICIENCY?
anemia and bone fragility, defects in pigmentation, Menke's Kinky Hair Syndome (genetic), degeneration of the nervous system
WHAT ARE THE SOURCES OF COPPER?
liver, shellfish, nuts, whole grains, raisins, legumes
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF FLUORIDE?
structural component of bones and teeth
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF FLUORIDE DEFICIENCY?
dental caries
WHAT ARE TEH SYMPTOMS OF FLUORIDE TOXICITY?
joint stiffness, mottling of teeth
WHAT IS A SOURCE OF FLUORIDE?
tea
WHAT IS THE CONTENT OF FLUORIDE IN AUSTIN WATER?
.8-1 ppm
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF IODINE?
active in the synthesis of thyroid hormones
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF AN IODINE DEFICIENCY?
goiter - goitrogens, peanuts
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF IRON?
oxygen transport, transport form
WHERE AND AS WHAT IS IRON STORED?
in the liver as homosiderin
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF IRON DEFICIENCY?
anemia
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOM OF IRON TOXICITY?
poisoning
WHAT IS THE RDA OF MAGNESIUM?
310 mg/d - f
400 mg/d - m
WHAT ARE TEH SOURCES OF MAGNESIUM?
seeds, cereals, dark leafy vegetables
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY?
- tremors, seizures, irritability, hallucination, kwashikor
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF MAGNESIUM TOXICITY?
anaesthetic effect, come and heart and kidney failure
WHAT IS THE RDA OF MANGANESE?
2.3 mg/day - male
1.8 mg/day - female
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF MANGANESE?
skeletal and tissue development, SOD (?)
WHAT IS THE RDA OF PHOSPHOROUS?
700 mg/day
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF PHOSPHOROUS?
- regulate release of energy (ATP)
- absorption and transport of nutrients
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF PHOSPHOROUS DEFICIENCY?
- fatigue, anorexia, bone demineralization, muscle weakness
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF PHOSPHOROUS TOXICITY?
hyperparathyroidism
WHAT ARE THE SOURCES OF PHOSPHOROUS?
cheese and soft drinks
IS SELENIUM THE CORRECT ANSWER TO A QUESTION ON THE FINAL?
no but i may appear as an option for an answer
IS SULFUR ON THE TEST?
no
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF ZINC?
- essential for >60 enzymes
- skin integrity
- wound healing
- reproduction and growth
WHAT STORES ZINC IN THE BODY?
metallothionein
WHAT IS THE RDA OF ZINC?
11 mg/d - male
8 mg/d - female