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23 Cards in this Set

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DIGESTIBLE POLYSACCHARIDES
GLUCOSE UNITS
*THE STORAGE FORM OF GLUCOSE!!
Starch
storage form of glucose in plants
-found in grains, legumes, and tubers
Glycogen
*storage form of glucose in animals
-stored in the liver and muscle, used as energy
Fiber is the structural parts of _________/
plants
Fiber is non-__________-by human enzymes
digestible
Dietary Fiber is the term used to describe plant substances that cannot be __________ by human enzymes
broken down
Dietary Fiber digested to some degree by bacteria that reside in the large __________.
large intestine
Dietary Fibers' extent of digestion depends on the type of fiber and the __________ population in the GI Tract.
microbial
CLASSIFICATION OF FIBERS
WATER SOLUBLE
WATER INSOLUBLE
Water- soluble fibers inclue pectin, gums, some ___________, mucilages
hemicellulose
Water-Soluble found in ______, oats, barley, and legumes.
-FRUIT
Water insoluble include _________, some hemicellulose, lignin.
Cellulose
Water insoluble found in ___________, wheat, rice bran, and other cereals.
VEGETABLES
Which are physical characteristics of Fibers?
a.Water holding capacity
b. Viscosity-form gel like solutions
c. Cation-exchange capacity-bind minerals
d. Bile binding capacity-bind bile salts and other sterols
e. Fermentable-promote bacterial action
ALL OF THE ABOVE
Recommendations of Fiber Intake are
25g/day or 14g/1000 Kcal
Lactose intolerance is the inability of body to hydrolyze lactose due to an inherited or ___________ deficiency in lactase.
acquired(disease, medicines, aging)
lactose=glucose+ galactose
Lactose attracts ________ causing bloating.
water
Lactose- _________ uses the lactose producing gas and acid.
Intestinal bacteria
BLOOD GLUCOSE CONTROL
pancreas-releases glucagon when glucose is low
Liver-removes glucose from bloodstream(response to insulin), releases glucose into the bloodstream(response to glucagon), Releases INSULIN WHEN GLUCOSE IS HIGH
Functions of Insulin
-Promotes glycogen synthesis
-Increases glucose uptake by the cells
-Reduces gluconeogenesis
-Net effect-lowers the blood glucose
Functions of Glucagon
-BREAKDOWn glycogen
-ENHANCES gluconeogenesis
-net effect- RAISES blood glucose
Epinephrine/Norepinephrine
-fight or flight response
-breakdown glycogen
-RAISES blood glucose
DIABETES MELLITUS- TYPE 1
REDUCTION in insulin production(total absense of insulin secretion)
-Insulin DEPENDANT
-Hyperglycemia
-Autoimmune disorder- (destruction of insulin producing cells