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107 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
9.2 Research on relapse following smoking cessation has found which of the following to be true:
a. on the average, smokers gain 17.5 pounds during the 1st yr after quitting smoking
b. although many smokers want to quit, only about 9% successfully quit each year
c. smoking cessation interventions are signifly more effective for women than for men
d. about two-thirds of smokers who quit on their own or w/ the assistance of an intervention relapse w/in 3 mths of quitting
9.2 The plethora of research on smoking cessation and relapse has not produced entirely consis. results, but a no. of generalizations can be made.
a. Incorrect - Most authors report an average weight gain of about 5 or 6 pounds.
b. Incorrect - Only 2.5% of quitters are successful each year.
c. Incorrect - There are no consis. gender diffs in the effectiveness of various interventions for smoking.
d. CORRECT - This is the statistic reported by Carmody.
9.7 As defined by Piaget, a child is exhibiting "horizontal decalage" when he/she:
a. reasons from one partic. event to another partic. event
b. can perform a task w/ assistance but not alone
c. gradually makes finer and finer distinctions b/w stimuli over time
d. manifests inconsistency in exhibiting a partic. type of ability
9.7 Piaget used the term horizontal decalage to describe the gradual dvpt that occurs w/in a stage - e.g., the gradual mastery of operations during the concrete opal stage.
a. Incorrect - This describes transductive reasoning.
b. Incorrect - This describes Vygotsky's zone of proximal dvpt.
c. Incorrect - This describes E. Gibson's theory regarding perceptual dvpt in infants.
d. CORRECT - Of the responses, only this one describes Piaget's notion of horiz. decalage.
9.9 Which of the following indivs distings b/w Steady State, Linear, Spiral, and Transitory Career Concepts:
a. Super
b. Holland
c. Driver
d. Krumholtz
9.9 Only one of the four indivs listed in the responses emphasizes the role of the 4 Career Concepts in career d-making.
c. CORRECT - M.J. Driver distings b/w the 4 Career Concepts listed in the qn and describes them in terms of 3 dimensions: freqy of job change, direction of change, and type of change in job content.
9.10 Research investigating the impact of grp heterogeneity and task perf. has generally found that:
a. grp heterogeneity is always preferable to grp homogeneity regardless of the type of task
b. grp homogeneity is always preferable to grp heterogeneity regardless of the type of task
c. grp heterogeneity is preferable on disjunctive tasks but can actually be detrimtal on some other types of tasks
d. grp heterogeneity is preferable on conjunctive tasks but can actually be detrimtal on some other types of tasks
9.10 A good "rule-of-thumg" for answering qns is to eliminate responses that contain absolutes (e.g., "always" or "never").
c. CORRECT - Grps that are heterogeneous w/ regard to members' skills, experience, and other characteristics have been found to be partic. beneficial for disjunctive tasks in which only 1 member needs to identify the correct response or solution.
d. Incorrect - Heterogeneity can actually be detrimtal on conjunctive tasks in which grp success deps on the ability of each member to perf. his/her role effectively (and the roles do not req heterogeneity).
9.15 Research on complex decision-making has confirmed that:
a. statistical prediction is more accurate than clinical judgmt
b. clin. judgmt is more accurate than statistical prediction
c. clin. judgmt is more accurate than statistical prediction as long as the clinician "optimizes" rather than "satisfices"
d. clin. judgmt and statistical prediction are about equal in accuracy
9.15 Grove and Meehle recently conducted a meta-analysis of the research on the rel. accuracy of statistical (actuarial) prediction and clin. judgmt.
a. CORRECT - Of the 136 studies reviewed by Grove and Meehl, actuarial prediction alone was most accur. in 64 studies, a combo of actuarial prediction and clin. judgmt was most accur. than either alone in 64 studies, and clin. judgmt alone was most accur. in only 8 studies.
9.16 According to Margaret Mahler's obj relns theory, the dvpt of a sense of self is the result of a separation-individuation process that begs at about ____ mths of age:
a. 2 to 3
b. 4 to 5
c. 8 to 10
d. 12 to 14
9.16 Mahler distings b/w 2 phases that contrib to the dvpt of a unique sense of self: symbiosis and separation-individuation.
a. Incorrect - An infant is in the symbiosis phase at this age.
b. CORRECT - Separation-individuation is triggered by the child's ability to sep. from his/her primary caregiver. The process begs at about 4 to 5 mths of age when a child who being held by his/her caregiver is able to lean away to scan the environmt.
c. Incorrect - This age is v. imp. for the sepn-individuation process because the child is now able to crawl away from his/her caregiver. However, the process begs prior to 8 to 10 mths of age.
9.19 Recent studies by the CDC have confirmed that teen birth and pregnancy rates have steadily dec'd since the 1960s in the U.S. w/ the exception of an inc. in the late 1980s to 1991. In terms of race and ethnicity, these studies have found that pregnancy rates among females aged 15 to 24 are currently the highest for:
a. white non-Hispanics
b. black non-Hispanics
c. Hispanics
d. Asians/Pacific Islanders
9.19 The CDC has published the results of several studies on teen birth and pregnancy rates in the last few yrs. (Note that this qn is asking about pregnancy and not birth rates).
a. Incorrect - For this age range, white non-Hispanics have the lowest pregnancy rates of the 3 grps included in the Ventura et al. study.
b. CORRECT - For this age range, black non-Hispanics have the highest pregnancy rates.
c. Incorrect - Hispanics in this age range have a slightly lower pregnancy rate than black non-Hispanics. (Note, however, that birth rates for Hispanic teens are actually higher than the birth rates for black non-Hispanic teens.)
d. Incorrect - Asians/Pacific Islanders were not included in the Ventura et al. study. However, a recent CDC report on birth rates indics that members of this grp have much lower birth rates than members of other racial/ethnic grps (and, therefore, are also likely to have the lowest pregnancy rates).
9.21 Which of the following is not a criticism of Herzberg's 2-factor theory and notion of job enrichmt:
a. the orig. sample on which Herzberg's theory is based may not be representative of the population
b. the theory does not a/c for indiv. diffs in attitudes toward pay, social relns, indiv. responsibility, etc.
c. 2-factor theory and job enrichmt may not be applicable to wkers from diff. countries and cultures
d. 2-factor theory does not clarify the diffs b/w internal and external motivation
9.21 Herzberg's theory distings b/w hygiene and motivator factors and proposes that jobs that prov. motivators (i.e., enriched jobs) will be the most satisfying and motivating for wkers.
a. Incorrect - This is a criticism of Herzberg's theory.
b. Incorrect - A no. of investigators have pted out that indiv. diffs are not considered.
c. Incorrect - Studies have found that the theory is not as applicable in some countries as it is in the U.S.
d. CORRECT - Internal and external motivation are o'side the predictions of the theory and, conseqly, have not been a target of criticism.
9.22 Research has shown that membership in a cohesive (vs. noncohesive) grp is assoced w/:
a. greater productivity and reduced absenteeism and turnover
b. reduced absenteeism and turnover, and in some sitns, greater productivity
c. greater productivity but no signif. impact on absenteeism and turnover
d. in the long-run, reduced productivity and inc'd absenteeism and turnover
9.22 Grp cohesiveness has been linked to a no. of benefits and liabilities.
b. CORRECT - Grp cohesiveness has been consisly linked to reduced absenteeism and turnover by the research, but its assocn w/ productivity is moderated by a no. of factors (e.g., the grp's norms regarding productivity).
9.23 The use of shaping to establish a complex behavior deps on which of the following:
a. latent learning
b. positive reinforcemt
c. higher-order conditioning
d. successive discrimination
9.23 Shaping involves reinforcing successive approximations to the target (desired) beh.
a. Incorrect - Latent learning occurs w/out direct reinforcemt.
b. CORRECT - When using shaping to establish a new beh, responses that come closer and closer to the desired beh are successively reinforced.
c. Incorrect - Higher-order conditioning is a type of classical (not operant) conditioning.
d. Incorrect - Successive discrimination teaches the learner to respond diffly to 2 or more stimuli that are presented successively.
9.30 Sherif's (1965) social judgmt theory implies that, before trying to persuade s-one to your pt of view, you shd consider his/her:
a. categs of judgmt
b. locus of control
c. categ-based expectancies
d. level of self-monitoring
9.30 Sherif's social judgmt theory predicts that ppl have "categories of judgmt" by which they eval persuasive messages.
a. CORRECT - Sherif's theory distings b/w 3 categories of judgmt - latitude of acceptance, latitude of non-commitmt, and latitude of rejection. A person is most likely to be persuaded when a msg is within his/her latitude of acceptance.
9.33 Dr. E. Dict has been seeing Jay Bird, a prisoner at the local jail, in therapy for the past 5 mths. The parole board contacts Dr. Dict to request that he eval. Bird for an upcoming parole hearing. Dr. Dict shd:
a. agree to evaluate Bird since he is best qualified to eval him fairly
b. agree to evaluate Bird only if Bird agrees to the arrangemt
c. agree to evaluate Bird only if he feels that Bird is eligible for parole
d. refuse to eval Bird for the parole hearing
9.33 The APA's guidelines req psycs to avoid dual (multiple) relnships.
d. CORRECT - This type of sitn is addressed in the APA's Guidelines for Forensic Psycs and Prof, Ethical, and Legal Issues Concerning Interpersonal Violence, Maltx, and Related Trauma. These docs and the Ethics Code req psycs to avoid dual relnships whenever objectivity, exploitation, and other issues reled to effectiveness are of concern, which wd be the case in this sitn. The 2 roles - therapist and forensic evaluator - clearly conflict and shd be avoided.
9.34 Dr. Goodman has been dating Billy Bob for 7 wks when she realizes that he is the bro of a client she has been seeing in therapy for nearly 3 mths. Dr. Goodman's best course of action wd be to:
a. refer the client to another therapist immediately
b. stop seeing Billy Bob immediately
c. discuss the matter w/ the client as soon as possible
d. do nothing until it becomes evident that the sitn is creating a conflict
9.34 The Ethics Code warns against becoming involved in multiple relnships. However, it does not dirly address this partic. sitn.
c. CORRECT - This response is most consis. w/ the spirit of Std 1.17(c) of the Ethics Code which states, "If a psyc finds that, due to unforeseen factors, a potally harmful multiple relnship has arisen, the psyc attempts to resolve it w/ due regard for the best ints of the affected person and maximal compliance w/ the Ethics Code." It may be necessary, eventually, to refer the client to another therapist or end the relnship w/ Billy Bob, but neither of these wd be the best initial action.
9.35 According to DSM-IV-TR, in children, GAD:
a. usu. first dvps after a recent loss such as parental divorce or death of a family member
b. is usu. manifested as autonomic hyperarousal and other prominent phys. sxs
c. is often manifested as excessive concern about perf. or competence at school
d. typically involves crying, tantrums, freezing, and clinging to family members, esp. among those under 7 yrs of age
9.35 Sxs of GAD are somewhat age-reled.
a. Incorrect - This is not listed in DSM as characteristic of GAD.
b. Incorrect - Autonomic hyperarousal is actually somewhat less in GAD than in other Anxiety DOs.
c. CORRECT - DSM-IV-TR notes that children w/ GAD "tend to worry excessively about their competence or the quality of their performance" and this worry is freqly reled to schlwk and perf. in sports activities.
d. Incorrect - This is characteristic of children with Social Phobia.
9.37 A recent meta-analysis of the research on expressed emotion and relapse by Butzlaff and Hooley (1998) found that high levels of expressed emotion by family members:
a. are predictive of relapse for pts w/ Sz but not for pts with a mood or eating DO
b. are predictive of relapse for pts w/ a mood DO or Sz but not for those with an eating DO
c. are predictive of relapse for pts w/ an eating DO or a mood DO but not for pts with Sz
d. may be somewhat more predictive of relapse for pts w/ a mood or eating DO than for pts w/ Sz
9.37 Expressed emotion has been well-ested as a predr of relapse in pts w/ Sz, and recent studies have linked it to negative outcomes for a no. of other DOs.
d. CORRECT - Butzlaff and Hooley looked at studies investigating the impact of EE on outcomes for Sz, mood DOs, and eating DOs and found that high EE by family members was more strongly predictive of relapse for mood and eating DOs than for Sz, although all effect sizes for all 3 were signif. Specifically, they obted weighted mean effect sizes for mood DOs, eating DOs, and Sz of, respectively, .39, .51 and .31.
9.45 Research evaluating the impact of child sexual abuse on the adjmt of males and females has:
a. consisly found that negative outcomes are essentially the same for males and females in terms of both nature and severity.
b. consisly found that negative outcomes are worse for males than for females in terms of both nature and severity
c. consisly found that negative outcomes are worse for females than for males in terms of both nature and severity
d. produced inconsis. results, with some studies showing that females have more negative outcomes and others finding that the outcomes are similar for males and females
9.45 Like much research in psychology, stdies on the outcomes of child sexual abuse have not produced consis. results.
d. CORRECT - Currently, there is no clear consensus about the outcomes of child sexual abuse for male and female victims. A no. of studies have found no consis. gender diffs; but, when diffs are found, the outcomes are worse for females than for males.
9.46 It is not until _____ yrs of age that most children express more favorable attitudes toward members of their own ethnic or racial grp than toward members of other grps.
a. 4
b. 6
c. 8
d. 10
9.46 Early studies on in-group preferences found that children typically demonstrate preferences for members of their own ethnic/racial grp and gender by about age 4 and 5, respectively.
a. CORRECT - Clark, Hocevar, and Dembo (1980) found that, by 4 yrs of age, children typically express more favorable attitudes toward members of their ethnic grp than members of other ethnic grps. This finding is consis. w/ other research showing that children first become aware of diffs in race-reled phys. characteristics by about age 3.
9.49 Incentive/reward theory implies that which of the following is most important for ensuring wker motivation:
a. clearly tying positive reinforcers to effective perf.
b. making jobs inting, attractive, and satisfying
c. explicitly linking indiv goals to orgal goals
d. allowing wkers to identify their preferred benefits
9.49 The implications of incentive/reward and other motivational theories are summarized by Katzell and Thompson.
a. Incorrect - This is an implication of reinfocemt theory, which is diff from incentive/reward theory in its premises and implications.
b. CORRECT - Incentive/reward theory is broader than reinforcemt theory and emphasizes the features of the job and wk environmt that maximize wker interest and satisfaction.
c. Incorrect - This is not a key implication of incentive/reward theory.
d. Incorrect - Also not an implication of the theory.
9.52 A researcher investigating implicit memory will most likely use which of te following tasks:
a. free recall
b. paired-associate
c. word-stem completion
d. verbal recognition
9.52 Implicit memory refers to memory that is effortless or automatic. Implicit memory is rel. unaffected by normal aging and by most conditions that affect explicit memory (e.g., Korsakoff's syndrome).
c. CORRECT - Of the tasks listed, this one is the only one used to assess implicit memory (the others are used to eval explicit memory). A researcher used a word-stem completion task presents the subject w/ the first few letters of a word and (e.g., SCH-___) asks him/her to complete a word that begs w/ those letters.
9.56 Which of the following is NOT true about the effects of crowding:
a. men are more negatively affected than women by crowded conditions
b. incing age is assoced w/ an incing negative impact of crowding
c. ppl are more willing to discuss intimate details in crowded (vs. uncrowded) conditions
d. crowded (vs. uncrowded) conditions are assoced w/ a higher risk for health-related probs
9.56 The outcomes of crowding have been linked to a no. of indiv and environmtal characteristics.
a. Incorrect - Men do tend to be more adversely affected by crowding.
b. Incorrect - Children are less affected by crowding than adults.
c. CORRECT - This is the oppos. of what is true - ppl are less willing to discuss intimate topics and to seek social support in crowded sitns.
d. Incorrect - Living and wking in crowded conditions is assoced w/ more health probs.
9.58 According to Berscheid and Walster's (1974) 2-factor theory of love, love is the result of:
a. attraction and arousal
b. passion and intimacy
c. mutual attraction and reciprocal reinforcemt
d. physiol. arousal and a label for it
9.58 Berscheid and Walster conceptualize love as being similar to other emotions.
d. CORRECT - Support for the tw-factor theory is provided, for example, by a study showing that couples who partic. in an exciting, arousing game together subseqly report stronger positive feelings toward one another than couples who partic. in a more mundane activity.
9.59 A person is exhibiting a ______ when she tends to pay more attn to msgs and experiences that support her view on a controversial issue while ignoring those that discredit her view:
a. cognitive consistency bias
b. confirmation bias
c. halo bias
d. self-serving bias
9.59 A no. of biases have been identified by investigatyors inted in d-making and memory.
a. Incorrect - Cognitive consistency theory predicts that behs that are inconsis. w/ an ested attitude are likely to be changed.
b. CORRECT - A confirmation bias (Silverman, 1992) is the tendency to believe and pay attn to experiences that support our views and ignore experiences that discredit them.
c. Incorrect - The halo bias occurs when a person's status or perf. on one dimension affects how a rater rates him/her on all other dimensions.
d. Incorrect - A self-serving bias occurs when a person attributes positive outcomes to internal (dispositional) factors and negative outcomes to external (sitnal) factors.
9.60 Research by Kindig and Richards (2000) cfed the perf. of children w/ a hx of otitis media to peers w/out a hx of this DO on the WISC-R. Their results revealed that children who had otitis media:
a. scored signifly lower than other children on the Verbal Comprehension factor only
b. scored signifly lower than other children on the Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Organization factors
c. scored signifly lower than other children on the Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, and Freedom from Distractibility factors
d. scored about the same as other children on all 3 WISC factors
9.60 a. CORRECT - Children w/ a hx of otitis media obted signifly lower scores only on the Verbal Comprehension factor.
9.61 A psyc has been seeing a 12-yr old in therapy for several weeks w/ the consent of the girl's mother and father. Suddenly, however, both parents w/draw their consent. The psyc believes that it is in the best ints of the girl to continue therapy. His best course of action wd be to:
a. stop the tx because both parents have w/drawn their consent but prov. them w/ referrals to other therapists
b. continue to see the girl w/out the parents' consent
c. seek judicial intervention
d. obt a signed consent from the girl and continue tx
9.61 This is addressed by DeKrai and Sales.
c. CORRECT - Although some states have laws that allow physicians and psycs to prov. services w/out parental consent, no info is given in this qn regarding the relev law or whether the child's problem(s) wd be covered by this type of law. Therefore, this is best response.
9.62 Greenberg and Shuman (1997) identify ten "irreconcilable conflicts" b/w therapeutic and forensic relnships. Which of the following is NOT one of the diffs described by these authors b/w the roles of therapist and forensic evaluator:
a. in a therapeutic relnship, the psyc's role is that of care provider; in a forensic relnship, the psyc's role is that of advocate
b. in a therapeutic relnship, the relnship is structured primarily by the client; in a forensic relnship, the relnship is structured primarily by the evaluator
c. in a therapeutic relnship, info provided by the client is rarely scrutinized for accuracy; in a forensic relnship, info provided by the litigant is often scrutinized for accuracy
d. in a therapeutic relnship, the relnship b/w client and therapist is rarely adversarial; in a forensic relnship, the relnship b/w litigant and therapist is often adversarial
9.62 Even if unfamiliar w/ Greenberg and Shuman article, you may have been able to identify the correct response as long as you are familiar w/ the roles and ethical obligations of forensic psycs.
a. CORRECT - Greenberg and Shuman note that a psyc does adopt the role of care provider in a therapeutic relnship. However, in a forensic relnship, a psyc does not adopt the role of advocate but instead is neutral, detached, and objective.
9.63 According to CDC stats, among American Indians/Native Americans:
a. the rates for homicide and suicide are both lower than the national rates
b. the rates for homicide and suicide are both higher than the national rates
c. the rate for homicide is higher but the rate for suicide is lower than the national rates
d. the rate for homicide is lower but the rate for suicide is higher than the national rates
9.63 The homicide and suicide rates for American Indians/Native Americans are summarized in the CDC report.
b. CORRECT - This answer is consis. w/ the stats reported by the CDC. Also, noted in the report is the fact that homicide and suicide rates for members of this population are partic. high for males aged 10 to 34.
9.64 HIV infection is often described in the lit. in terms of 3 stages. The 2nd stage is characterized by a strong immune sys response and:
a. swollen glands but other few sxs
b. flu-like sxs
c. the onset of numerous opportunistic infections
d. impaired concn, attn, and motor activity
9.64 The 3 stages of HIV infection (at least according to many experts) are: primary HIV infection, clinically asymptomatic stage, and symptomatic HIV infection.
a. CORRECT - The second (middle) stage lasts for about 8 to 10 yrs and involves few, if any, clinical sxs. During this asymptomatic stage, the immune sys is fighting the virus.
b. Incorrect - Flu-like sxs are characteristic of the initial stage.
c. Incorrect - Numerous opportunistic sxs dvp during the 3rd stage.
d. Incorrect - These sxs are characteristic of the middle stage of AIDS Dementia Complex, a form of dementia that begins in the late stage of HIV infection.
9.68 The final stage in Cross's (1995) model of identity dvpt for Af-Ams is:
a. internalization-commitmt
b. incorporation
c. integrative awareness
d. autonomy
9.68 Cross's most recent version of his model distings b/w 5 stages of identity dvpt: pre-encounter, encounter, immersion-emersion, internalization, and internalization-commitmt.
a. CORRECT - An Af-Am in this stage has dvped a strong ethnic identity but has also resolved global anti-white sentimts and become more bicultural.
9.75 For children of divorced parents, inc's freqy of contact w/ the noncustodial father:
a. is consisly assoced w/ more beh probs and lower academic achievemt
b. is consisly assoced w/ fewer beh probs and better academic achievemt
c. is assoced w/ fewer beh probs and better acad. achievemt only when the father is supportive and authoritative
d. is unrelated to severity of beh probs or level of academic achievemt regardless of the father's supportiveness and parenting style
9.75 The long-term impact of contact w/ the noncustodial father on child outcomes was investigated by Hetherington.
c. CORRECT - Hetherington found that freqy of contact w/ the noncustodial father itself is not predictive of child outcomes. However, a greater freqy of contact is assoced w/ better outcomes - esp. for boys - when the father is supportive, authoritative in terms of parenting sylte, and does not freqly engage in open conflict w/ his ex-spouse in front of the child.
9.76 An infant's first expression of fear is often in response to unfamiliar adults. The onset and severity of this "stranger anxiety" deps on several factors - for instance, the child's temperamt and prev. experience w/ strangers - but is ordinarily first evident when the child is ____ mths of age:
a. 3 to 5
b. 6 to 8
c. 9 to 11
d. 12 to 14
9.76 Stranger anxiety is considered one manifestation of a child's attachmt to his/her primary caregiver(s).
b. CORRECT - In most infants, stranger anxiety is first evident by 6 to 8 mths. Emergence of stranger anxiety at this age has been used as evidence that children do not have strong attachmts to caregivers prior to 6 mths of age.
9.79 From the perspective of Tuckman's (1965) model of grp formation, an emphasis on fun, socializing, and enjoymt is characteristic of the _____ stage:
a. norming
b. forming
c. performing
d. storming
9.79 Tuckman (1965) distinged b/w 4 stages of grp dvpt - forming, storming, norming, and performing. A fifth stage -adjourning - was more recently added to the model.
a. CORRECT - The norming stage is chracterized by wker agreemt, congruence, and participation in social activities. It can become a "period of play" as the task becomes temporarily abandoned by wkers.
9.80 According to Krumboltz, career dvpt and career choice are reled primarily to:
a. needs and drives
b. early childhd experiences
c. ego identity dvpt
d. social learning
9.80 Krumboltz proposes that career decisions are based on what the indiv has learned.
d. CORRECT - Krumboltz's emphasis is on social learning - i.e., modeling and other aspects of the social environmt. His theory is referred to as the Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making (SLTCDM).
9.86 From the perspective of the biopsychosocial model, relapse among substance abusers is due primarily to:
a. self-defeating persy traits and cognitions
b. pressure to re-establish homeostasis
c. high levels of expressed emotion by family members
d. the addictive dz process
9.86 The term "biopsychosocial" is used womewhat diffly by diff authors. However, not surprisingly, interventions based on a biopsychosocial model incorporate a variety of biological, psychological, and social concepts and strategies.
a. Incorrect - In the context of the biopsychosocial model, personality traits and cognitions are not the primary causes of relapse (although they may contribute to it).
b. Incorrect - This is not identified as the primary cause of relapse.
c. Incorrect - This is not identified as the primary cause of relapse.
d. CORRECT - The biopsychosocial model conceptualizes substance addiction as a dz process in which the long-term use of a drug causes brain dysfn that, in turn, results in persy, social, and other probs. From this perspective, addiction and relapse are conseqs of that dz process.
9.90 Coalitions, 2- and 3-generation conflicts, and rule-governed beh are key concerns for practitioners of:
a. Haley's Prob-Solving Therapy
b. de Shazer's Solution-Focused Therapy
c. Glasser's Reality Therapy
d. Bowen's Extended Family Systems Therapy
9.90 Although coalitions, conflicts, and rules are important to many therapists, "two- and three-generation conflicts" have been identified as a primary focus of therapy by only one of the therapists listed in the responses.
a. CORRECT - Jay Haley discusses the role of coalitions, 2- and 3-generation conflicts, and rule-goverened beh in his book "Prob-Solving Therapy."
9.94 Konrad Lorenz's (1957) research on "imprinting" in ducklings and goslings had the greatest impact on the study of ________ in human infants:
a. fear
b. brain dvpt
c. sociability
d. attachmt
9.94 "Imprinting" refers to the social bonding that occurs during a critical period following birth in some non-human species.
d. CORRECT - The ethologist Lorenz found that certain birds become attached (bonded) to the first moving object they encounter during the first few days following birth. This finding led to a search for a similar "critical period" for attachment in humans.
9.100 Research on children's reactions to their hospitalization has shown that allowing parents to stay w/ children during their hospital stay:
a. decs children's emotional trauma but has little impact on the duration of stay
b. decs the duration of stay but has little impact on children's emotional trauma
c. decs children's emotional trauma and duration of stay
d. has no signif effect on children's emotional trauma or duration of stay
9.100 The results of research on the effects of hospitalization on children are consis w/ "common sense."
c. CORRECT - Not surprisingly, the studies have found that, when parents stay w/ their hospitalized child, the child exhibits less maladjustmt following the hospitalization and must stay in the hospital for a shorter period of time.
9.104 A client you have been seeing in therapy for 3 mths tells you that her former therapist made repeated sexual advances toward her. She tells you that she does not wt you to say anythg about it to anyone and that she just wts to "get over it." As an ethical psyc, you shd:
a. inform the client that you are ethically obligated to make a report to the state licensing board
b. convince the client that she shd make a report to the appropr authorities
c. tell the client that you will maintain confidentiality
d. tell the client that you must file a complaint w/ APA but that you will not reveal her name
9.104 It is important to keep in mind that client confidentiality nearly always takes priority over other concerns.
a. Incorrect - In this sitn, you are not req'd to make a report since the client has not waived confidentiality.
b. Incorrect - "Convincing" the client wd not be the best course of action.
c. CORRECT - You wd not wt to make a report unless you had permission from the client.
d. Incorrect - Although you cd file a complaint w/out naming the client, the Ethics Committee wd be unable to take action in most cases.
9.106 Current research suggests that higher rates of Sz among Af-Ams is most likely attributable to:
a. heredity
b. cultural demands
c. socioeconomic factors
d. misdiagnosis of hallucinations and delusions
9.106 Studies in both the U.S. and England have found that members of certain minority grps (esp. grps devalued by the dominant culture) are more likely to receive a dx of Sz.
d. CORRECT - Current research suggests that the discrepancy in rates of Sz is due to misdx rather than to actual diffs in the prevalence of the DO. A contributing factor to misdx may be that Af-Ams have a higher incidence of hallucinations and delusions that are actually due to other DOs such as mania, depn, and alcohol abuse.
9.108 On the WISC-III, a child obts a Verbal IQ score that is 20 pts higher than his Perf IQ score. This is best interped as:
a. normal variation in scores
b. poor visual-motor integration
c. a learning disability
d. antisocial behavior
9.108 On the WISC-III, a diff of 12 pts on Verbal and Perf IQs is signif at the .05 level, meaning that it is an unusual phenomenon.
a. Incorrect - A diff of 20 pts is not w/in the range of expected variation.
b. CORRECT - Altho you wdn't conclude w/ certainty that this is the cause of the discrepancy, it is a poss. explanation and shd be considered.
c. Incorrect - This wd be a possibility if Perf IQ is 20 pts higher than Verbal IQ
d. Incorrect - This is also another possibility when Perf IQ is higher.
9.110 The Consumer Reports study of p-therapy found that:
a. LT therapy has little or no adv over ST therapy for most clients
b. clients report greater improvemt w/ LT therapy than ST therapy
c. most clients achieve maximum improvemt during the first 2 mths of therapy
d. most clients do not report substantial improvemt following therapy, regardless of its duration
9.110 The Consumer Reports survey generally supported the notions that therapy is effectie and that, the longer the therapy, the better the outcomes.
b. CORRECT - The survey confirmed that there is a dose dependent effect of therapy, w/ a "larger dose" producing more positive effects. Participants in the study reported incingly greater satisfaction w/ the outcomes of therapy the longer they were in therapy.
9.114 Research on the effects of gender on goal-setting indics that:
a. goal-setting signifly incs the perf of both males and females when goals are participatively set or assigned
b. goal-setting signifly incs the perf of both males and females only when goals are participatively set
c. goal-setting signifly incs the perf of males but not females when goals are assigned but incs the perf of males and females when goals are participatively set
d. goal-setting signifly incs the perf of females but not males when goals are assigned but incs the perf of males and females when goals are participatively set
9.114 The effects of gender on goal-setting are briefly discussed by Locke and Latham.
a. CORRECT - The few studies that have examined the effects of gender have found that, overall, goal-setting is equally effective for males and females.
9.118 According to Fiedler's contingency model of leadership, interpers relns b/w a leader and his/her least preferred cowker are important when the wker is:
a. well-liked
b. neither liked or disliked
c. disliked
d. extremely disliked
9.118 Fiedler distings b/w 2 types of leaders - high LPC and low LPC.
a. CORRECT - A high LPC leader describes his/her LPC in favorable terms. High LPC leaders are more relnship-oriented than low LPC leaders. e.g., they seek need gratification by trying to create sitns that foster gd interpersonal relns.
9.121 In a research study, a one-year old is placed on the shallow side of a visual cliff, while the baby's mother stands on the deep side. On alternate trials, the mother is instructed to smile at her infant or to show a fearful face. The baby's diff'al response to his/her mother will be reflective of:
a. attachmt
b. depth perception
c. impulsivity
d. temperamt
a. CORRECT - The visual cliff has also been used to study attachmt and other dvptal phenomena. The mother's beh is a variable in this study (she either smiles or makes a fearful face). If attachmt has dvped, the mother's facial expression will serve as a signal of safety or danger to the infant. This is referred to as social referencing.
9.129 According to the Central Limit Theorem, a sampling distribn incingly approaches a normal shape regardless of the shape of the population distribn:
a. as the no. of samples incs
b. as the size of the sample incs
c. as the critical value incs
d. as the effect size incs
9.129 The Central Limit Theorem predicts the characteristics of a sampling distribn.
b. CORRECT - Even when the population distribn deviates from normal, the sampling distribn will approach a normal curve as long as the sample size is sufficiently large. Note that the Central Lt theorem assumes an infinite no. of samples and that it is the sample size that varies.
9.134 Dr. Blue, a psyc, is hired by a company to administer tests for the purposes of evaling current employees to det if they shd be considered for promotion. In this sitn:
a. an informed consent from examinees shd be obted
b. an informed consent is not req'd since the employer is Dr. Blue's "client"
c. an informed consent from examinees is not req'd, although they shd be reminded about the lts of confidentiality
d. it is up to Dr. Blue to decide whether any info about the test shd be given to examinees
9.134 This issue is addressed in APA's Stmt on the Disclosure of Test Data and in Stds for Educal and Psyc Testing.
a. CORRECT - In most sitns, psycs obt informed consents prior to testing from the person being evaled or his/her legal guardian. Altho there are exceptions in certain employmt sitns, this response is the best of those given. See Std 16.1 of the Stds.
b. Incorrect - While it is not always necess to get an informed consent in employmt sitns, this response is not as gd as response A because the fact that the employer is the client does not automatically eliminate the need for an informed consent. (And, even when it isn't necessary to obt a consent, the indiv shd ordinarily be given some info about the purpose of the test, etc.)
9.135 Two studies are conducted to test the effects of a cognitive-behal technique on attn span in children with ADHD. The studies are identical in procedures, no. of Ss, and so on, but in Study #1, p<.05, while in Study #2, p>.10. Based on this info, you can conclude that:
a. the results of Study #1 indic an effect oppos. of the effect produced in Study #2
b. the effect size in Study #1 was larger than the effect size in Study #2
c. the researcher has made a Type II error in Study #2
d. a one-tailed test was used in Study #1: a two-tailed test in Study #2
9.135 The diff b/w the 2 studies is that one achieved statistical significance (p<.05), while the other did not (p>.10).
a. Incorrect - The results may or may not be in the same direction. There is insufficient info in the qn to det which is the case.
b. CORRECT - Significance is achieved when the effect size (effect of the IV) is sufficiently large to be detected by the statistical test. There is enough info given in this qn to draw this conclusion.
c. Incorrect - Study #2 may involve a Type II error, or alternatively, Study #1 may involve a Type 1 error.
d. Incorrect - There is nothing in the qn that implies that this is true.
9.138 Most ppl seek EAP (employee assistance program) services:
a. on their own
b. as a result of referral by a supervisor
c. at the suggestion of a fellow employee
d. at the referral of a physician
9.138 Although little systematic research has been conducted to identify how and when employees decide to make use of an EAP, there is evidence that most employees do so on their own.
a. CORRECT - As noted, self-referral is the most freq method of referral to EAPs.
9.140 A no. of studies have been conducted in the last decade to examine the interaction b/w cogn and affect. One consis. finding of this research is that:
a. ppl in a positive mood perceive, encode, and retrieve positive, neutral, and negative information w/ equal efficiency and more efficiently than ppl in a negative mood
b. ppl in a positive mood perceive, encode, and retrieve neutral information most efficiently, while ppl in a negative mood perceive, encode, and retrieve positive and negative information most efficiently
c. ppl in a positive mood perceive, encode, and retrieve positive information more efficiently, while ppl in a negative mood perceive, encode, and retrieve negative info more efficiently
d. there is no consis. relnship b/w mood and the perception, encoding, and retrieval of positive or negative info
9.140 Most studies support the principle of "mood congruency."
c. CORRECT - Except in special circumstances (e.g., when current mood is attributed to an exptal manipulation), there is consis. relnship b/w affect and cogn. Thus, deped ppl are more likely to recall pessimistic or negative events and make pessimistic social judgmts. (Intingly, there is also evid. that a gd mood is assoced w/ greater creativity than a negative mood but w/ less accurate judgmts.)
9.142 Dr. Prattle is asked by a local radio station if she wd be inted in doing a "talk show" on Saturday mornings. On the show, she will respond to ppl who call the station. To be consis w/ the provisions of the Ethics Code, Dr. Prattle shd:
a. avoid discussing issues w/ callers that are of a. "sensitive and potentially harmful nature"
b. avoid giving direct advice of a psycal nature to callers
c. be sure that callers understd that their conversations w/ her do not constitute a therapeutic relnship
d. be sure that she has adeq malpractice insurance
9.142 As noted by Canter et al. (1994), in their discussion of the Ethics Code, the ethical reqmts w/ regard to media psyc are "still evolving." However, since this qn refers specifically to the Code, the best answer is the one that best resembles the Code's language.
a. Incorrect - It is not necess to refuse to do the show, but certain precautions shd be taken.
b. Incorrect - Discussions of media psyc in the lit. have generally concluded that advice is actually better than therapy in this context.
c. CORRECT - Of the responses, this one comes closest to the language of Std 3.04. Moreover, Canter et al. note that on radio talk shows, the psyc shd be sure that he/she clearly distings b/w "media psychology" and "therapy."
d. Incorrect - This is probably a gd idea, but not best reponse.
9.149 Recent studies examining the therapist preferences of indivs belonging to culturally-diverse grps indics that they are most likely to:
a. rank race/ethnic similarity as more important than attitude similarity
b. rank attitude similarity as more important than race/ethnic similarity
c. rank persy similarity as more important than either race/ethnic similarity or attitude similarity
d. rank therapist experience as more important than similarity
9.149 Although members of culturally diverse grps express a stronger preference for therapists who are similar in terms of race or ethnicity, race and ethnicity are not always their 1st consideration.
a. Incorrect - This is oppos. of what some research has found.
b. CORRECT - This was finding of several recent studies: when members of culturally diverse grps were given a choice b/w race/ethnic similarity and attitude similarity, most ranked attitude similarity as more important.
c. Incorrect - Persy is ranked as less important than attitude or race/ethnicity.
9.151 Various types of control grps have been advocated for p-therapy research. A criticism of the use of a _____ is that it is susceptible to "demand artifacts":
a. normative comparison control grp
b. comparison grp
c. wait list control grp
d. non-client grp
9.151 There is an ongoing debate in the literature about the best type of control grp. Of those listed, only one is likely to be confounded by demand artifacts.
a. Incorrect - When a normative comparison is made, change in a client is defined as movemt from extreme sxatic scores on the DV to the "normal" range.
b. Incorrect - Some authors advocate the use of a comparison grp (rather than a no-tx control grp). A comparison grp recs a diff type of tx than the exptal grp.
c. CORRECT - Wait list controls are probably the most freqly used type of control grp, but some experts believe that they don't offer an accur. comparison since ppl in wait list control grps are rarely "just waiting" (i.e., they are susceptible to demand artifacts and other factors that affect their beh).
d. Incorrect - When using a non-client control grp, tx Ss are cfed to some type of nonequiv. grp.
9.158 Lawler's (1973) model of facet satisfaction:
a. is similar to equity theory and assumes that job satisfaction is affected by comparisons of one's own inputs and outcomes to the inputs and outcomes of others
b. is similar to need hierarchy theory and assumes that job satisfaction is reled to the fulfillmt of one's most prepotent needs
c. is similar to 2 factor theory and views satisfaction and dissatisfaction as indep factors
d. is similar to goal setting theory and proposes that participation in the setting of wk objectives is crucial for job satisfaction
9.158 Lawler's model of facet satisfaction is based on the premise that job satisfaction is a product of comparisons of one's job inputs, the inputs of others, and the job's chracteristics to one's outcomes and the outcomes of others.
a. CORRECT - Like equity theory, Lawler's model predicts that wkers compare their own input/outcome ratios to the input/outcome ratios of comparable others. When the ratios are the same, the wker is satisfied; when the wker's own ratio is lger than that of comparable others, the wker may feel guilt or other discomfort, and when the wker's ratio is less than that of comparable others, he/she is dissatisfied.
9.160 A prob w/ esting "comparable worth" is that:
a. job eval techniques are not as useful for v. complex jobs
b. males and females may use diff strats to reach the same decision or solution
c. the job eval techniques themselves may be gender-biased
d. it is diffic to compare achievemt across diff domains
9.160 The doctrine of comparable worth extends "equal content" as a determinant of wabes to "comparable worth." In other words, even if 2 jobs are diff in terms of content, they shd have the same salary as long as they invole similar processes and demands. Comparable worth became an issue because of the gender diffs in wages.
c. CORRECT - A difficy in esting comparable worth, at least according to some experts, is that the job eval techniques used to est it may themselves be gender-biased. This issue continues to be debated in the lit.
9.162 Current theories of empathy dvpt consider "emotional contagion" to be its earliest manifestation. This beh emerges:
a. in the first weeks of life
b. b/w 2 and 4 mths of age
c. at about 6 mths of age
d. at about 1 yr
9.162 Emotional contagion refers to the tendency of babies to cry at the sound of another infant's cries. This beh is considered by experts to be the first sign of empathy.
a. CORRECT - Emotional contagion is observed in infants as young as 2 days.
9.163 Parents who consisly use punitive, repressive methods of control are likely to produce children who:
a. have an indiscriminant need for social approval
b. are anxious and ambivalent
c. are weak, inept, or dependent
d. are socially w/drawn or hostile and rebellious
9.163 This issue has been addressed by several researchers who have found that diff parenting styles are assoced w/ diff child behs.
a. Incorrect - Parents who are punitive but who also reward gd beh w/ praise and approval are likely to have children w/ these characteristics.
b. Incorrect - Anxious, ambivalent children often have parents who are inconsis and contradictory in their control.
c. Incorrect - Overprotective parents tend to have weak, inept, or dependent children.
d. CORRECT - Children who are unable to satisfy the demands of their parents and are, therefore, freqly, subject to harsh punishmt are likely to be either socially anxious and w/drawn or hostile and aggressively rebellious. Which occurs depends on other factors in the child's life.
9.164 As a result of damage to the right ______, a person is able to pt to objects and avoid bumping into them but is unable to name them or describe their purpose:
a. frontal lobe
b. parietal lobe
c. occipital lobe
d. temporal lobe
a. Incorrect - The frontal lobes are involved in emotion, memory, language, and higher cog processes. (Lang probs usu. take the form of aphasia.)
b. Incorrect - The parietal lobes contain the somatosensory cortex and are involved in spatial relnship and the ability to perf. complex, sequential movemts.
c. CORRECT - The occipital lobes are involved in visual perception, recogn, and memory. Damage to the right occipital lobe can produce the unusual sxs described in this qn.
d. Incorrect - The temporal lobes are involved in auditory sensation and perception.
9.168 Dr. Solo signs a "non-compete agreemt" w/ his employer, which states that, if Dr. Solo leaves the clinic, he cannot continue seeing the clinic's clients on his own. The contract contains no exceptions to this provision. In terms of the Ethics Code:
a. this is acceptable
b. this is unacceptable since non-compete agreemts are unethical
c. this is acceptable as long as arrangemts are made for Dr. Solo's clients after he has left the clinic
d. this may be unacceptable if a client's welfare is jeopardized when Dr. Solo leaves the clinic
9.168 Although the Ethics Code doesn't dirly address non-compete agreemts, they are indirly covered in Std 4.08(b): Interruption of Services.
d. CORRECT - Std 4.08 emphasizes the importance of considering the welfare of the client when an employmt relnship ends. Also, in discussing this std, Canter et al. note that the type of non-compete agreemt described in this qn (i.e., one w/ no exceptions) may conflict w/ a psyc's ethical obligations to consider a client's welfare.
9.169 A child has no apparent cog or language deficits but seems to have little interest in communicating w/ others. This is most suggestive of:
a. Autistic DO
b. Selective Mutism
c. Rett's DO
d. Asperger's DO
9.169 All of the DOs listed in the responses involve probs in social interactions. However, Autistic DO and Rett's DO also involve language impairmts and Selective Mutism is characterized by a lack of communication in certain sitns.
a. Incorrect - Autistic DO is assoced w/ delays in language and, in many cases, cognitive deficits.
b. Incorrect - As noted above, Selective Mutism involves a lack of communication in some sitns w/ unimpaired communication in other sitns.
c. Incorrect - Rett's DO is characterized by sev impairmts in language dvpt and severe p-motor retardation.
d. CORRECT - This is the most likely dx for the sxs given. Asperger's DO does not involve signif delays in communication or cog ability but is marked by severe deficits in social interactions.
9.171 Generally speaking, the psycal adjustmt of children w/ chronic illness is most dependent on:
a. peer acceptance
b. family attitudes toward the illness
c. the child's persy type
d. the child's level of fnal disability
a. Incorrect - Although peer acceptance is important for children and adolescents w/ chronic illness, it is not as important as the level of disability.
b. Incorrect - Family factors have been linked to outcomes in chronic illness but "family attitudes toward the illness" is too specific to be the correct response.
c. Incorrect - The research has not linked outcome to partic. persy types.
d. CORRECT - A no. of studies have linked severity of the illness to outcome. Some authors argue that it is not so much illness severity but the level of fnal disability.
9.174 In wking w/ an Af-Am client exhibiting "healthy cultural paranoia," an Anglo therapist wd be best advised to:
a. refer the client to an Af-Am therapist
b. use a culturally-sensitive approach that ameliorates the client's paranoia
c. help the client bring feelings of suspiciousness, frustration, and antipathy toward whites into conscious awareness
d. place the client's beh w/in the context of racism and disting b/w normal and abnormal response w/in that context
9.174 Ridley presents a "typology of black client self-disclosure," which relates the willingness to self-disclose to 4 levels of "paranoia": intercultural nonparanoic disclosure; functional paranoiac; healthy cultural paranoiac; and confluent paranoiac.
a. Incorrect - Best course of action according to Ridley for the confluent paranoiac but isn't necess for the indiv experiencing healthy cultural paranoia.
b. Incorrect - Not best response since healthy cultural paranoia may not need to be "ameliorated."
c. CORRECT - Ridley recommends that therapists confront the meaning of the client's cultural paranoia by bringing his/her feelings into conscious awareness and help the client clarify when it is approp or inapprop to self-disclose.
d. Incorrect - This is recommendation Ridley makes for confluent paranoiac who reps a combo of fnal paranoia and healthy cultural paranoia.
9.178 Fagan's Test of Infant Intelligence has been found to be a better predr of later cog ability than traditional infant tests. Most likely this is because Fagan's Test:
a. measures sensorimotor skills
b. measures recogn memory
c. uses nonreactive measures
d. is a norm-referenced measure of dvpt
9.178 Current lit. on infant testing pts out that recently dvped measures of attn, habituation, and recogn memory are better predrs of future cog ability than traditional infant tests.
a. Incorrect - Traditional infant tests, which are not gd predrs, focus on sensorimotor skills.
b. CORRECT - Measures of attn, habituation, and recogn memory have been found to be fairly good predrs of future cog ability.
9.181 Recent surveys suggest that an employee's mental and phys. health is most reled to:
a. pay
b. the wk environmt
c. wk involvemt
d. job security
9.181 Perhaps because of widespread layoffs and downsizing, job security has become incingly important factor in the mental health of wkers.
d. CORRECT - This was the result of Kuhnert's survey of over 200 employees (described in Schanback). The more permanent the employees thought their position was, the greter their phys. and mental well-being.
9.182 In the context of mged health care, "gatekeeper" refers to the:
a. peer review board
b. HMO
c. clinical supervisor
d. PCP
9.182 Managed care reduces health costs in several ways including the use of a "gatekeeper" who makes referrals to specialists.
d. CORRECT - The gatekeeper is the person who makes referrals to a psychotherapist or other specialist or the person who evals the indiv to det if addnal care is needed. Very often, the gatekeeper is the PCP.
9.185 Overall, the best conclusion that can be drawn about clinical and actuarial predictions is that:
a. clinical predictions are about equally as accurate as actuarial predictions
b. clinical predictions are more accurate than actuarial predictions
c. clinical predictions are as accurate as actuarial predictions only when the clinician has adequate experience
d. actuarial predictions are often more accurate than clinical predictions
9.185 Clin. predictions are based on the judgmt of the d-maker, while actuarial predictions use empirically-derived data and techniques (e.g., regn equations).
b. Incorrect - At least one study has found that level of experience does not affect the accuracy of clinical predictions.
d. CORRECT - Most of the research has found that actuarial predictions are at least as good as - and often even better than - clin. predictions. This is even true when both types of predictions are based on identical data.
9.186 The technique of sensate focus is most applicable to which stage of the human sexual response cycle:
a. excitemt
b. plateau
c. orgasmic
d. resolution
9.186 As originally described by Masters and Johnson, sensate focus is a method of non-genital pleasuring that is used in the early stages of the tx if sexual dysfns.
a. CORRECT - The goal of sensate focus is to inc awareness and enjoymt of pleasurable sensations and to reduce perf. anxiety. Therefore, it addresses responding during the excitemt stage of the human sexual response cycle.
9.188 In recent yrs, psychosocial skills approaches to drug abuse prevention for children and adols have incingly focused on the role of:
a. assertion
b. antecedents
c. info about drug use
d. contingency contracts
9.188 In the last decade or so, evidence has accumulated showing that p-social skills training is a useful method for preventing drug use and abuse in children and adolescents.
a. CORRECT - The "Just say no!" campaign and Project D.A.R.E. are e.g.s of the application of assertion training to the prevention of drug use (Project D.A.R.E. combines training in assertion and d-making).
9.189 Within the context of orgs, peer appraisals:
a. tend to be more biased than appraisals by supervisors and others
b. are accurate but do not provide useful info for employee feedback
c. are considered useful for fostering competition among employees
d. are generally most useful for predicting promotions and raises
a. Incorrect - One fairly consis. finding is that peer appraisals are not biased.
b. Incorrect - One type of peer appraisal - peer rankings - are actually considered gd for the purpose of providing employees w/ feedback.
c. Incorrect - This is not considered an advantage of peer appraisals.
d. CORRECT - Peer appraisals seem to be partic. useful for predicting future success (e.g., promotions and raises).
9.190 From the perspective of DSM-IV, Transsexualism:
a. is one manifestation of a spectrum of DOs
b. reflects a physical intersex condition
c. is a distinct form of psychopathology
d. is no longer considered a mental DO
a. CORRECT - In DSM-IV, Transsexualism is not considered a distinct DO but, instead, a manifestation of Gender Identity DO which is assoced w/ diff characteristics across diff ages.
b. Incorrect - In the presence of an intersex condition (e.g., androgen insensitivity syndrome), a dx of Gender Identity DO NOS is made. As noted, Transsexualism is subsumed under the dx of Gender Identity DO, which reqs the absence of a phys. intersex condition.
c. Incorrect - Transsexualism is not considered a distinct DO but one manifestation of Gender Identity DO.
9.191 Marlatt and Gordon's (1985) relapse prevention model focuses on:
a. sitns antecedent to relapse
b. the perceived conseqs of relapse
c. controlled drinking
d. contingency mgmt
9.191 Marlatt and Gordon's approach to the defn and tx of addictions is classified as a social learning approach that combines behal and cog principles.
a. CORRECT - According to Marlatt and Gordon, relapse is a failure to maintain a beh change after tx and is best avoided by identifying and dealing w/ its antecedents. (The research has shown that "negative affect" is the most common antecedent of relapse.)
9.194 A behal approach to the tx of Major Depn wd most likely include:
a. stimulus control
b. DRO
c. stress inoculation
d. self-control
9.194 There is no single behal intervention for depn, but instead, several techniques that are used alone or together.
a. Incorrect - Although there may be some use of stimulus control in the tx of depn, this technique is not esp. assoced w/ this DO.
b. Incorrect - DRO is not assoced w/ the tx of depn.
c. Incorrect - Stress inoculation is assoced more w/ anxiety and other acute reactions to stress than w/ depn.
d. CORRECT - Rehm's self-control therapy is usu. categorized in the lit. as a behal approach and was designed specifically for the tx of Major Depn. (Its techniques and assumptions also overlap w/ cog therapy, and conseqly, it can also be conceptualized as a cognitive-behal technique.)
9.195 Predrs of a positive response to a tricyclic antidepressant as a tx for Major Depn incl all of the following except:
a. insidious onset of sxs
b. weight loss
c. middle and late insomnia
d. hypochondriasis
9.195 The various antidepressants, to some deg, are most effective for diff depressive sxs.
d. CORRECT - Hypochondriasis, hysterical traits, multiple previous episodes, and delusions are assoced w/ a poor response to the tricyclic drugs. The sxs listed in responses A, B, and C (along w/ p-motor disturbances and other vegetative sxs) are predictive of a gd response.
9.196 Based on APA's Guidelines, the best overall conclusion that can be drawn about dual relnships in forensic settings is that psycs:
a. shd always avoid dual relnships
b. shd avoid dual relnships that are inconsistent
c. shd partic in dual relnships only when the client has consented to the arrangemt
d. shd partic in dual relnships when they are the result of a court order
9.196 Dual relnships in forensic (and other) settings are not completely prohibited by the Ethics Code. However, special precautions must always be taken when embarking on a dual relnship.
a. Incorrect - The prohibition against dual relnships is not an absolute one, and in fact, the Ethics Code mentions some specific relnships that might be acceptable.
b. CORRECT - This is the language of the Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists
c. Incorrect - Even though a client grants permission for the psychologist to engage in a dual relnship, the client's info about the poss. conseqs may be ltd. It is up to the psyc to det whether the dual relnship is approp when the client has consented.
d. Incorrect - The Ethics Code is somewhat less restrictive than this response indicates.
9.200 Recent meta-analyses of the literature on the outcomes of divorce for children:
a. have confirmed that boys are substantially more adversely affected by divorce than girls
b. have confirmed that girls are substantially more adversely affected by divorce than boys
c. suggest that gender diffs are weak w/ boys being only s-what more adversely affected than girls
d. suggest that gender diffs are weak w/ girls being only s-what more adversely affected than boys
c. CORRECT - Although a no. of early studies suggest that the outcomes of divorce are much worse for boys than girls, more recent studies indic that this is not necessarily the case and that gender diffs may have been present prior to the divorce rather than being the result of the divorce.
10.22 A domain-referenced test is useful for:
a. predicting an examinee's status w/ regard to an external domain
b. deting an examinee's level of mastery in a particular domain
c. deting the deg to which test items adeqly eval a partic. domain
d. cfing an examinee's familiarity w/ a partic. domain to that of comparable others.
10.22 "Domain-referenced" is an alternative name for "content-referenced."
b. CORRECT - A domain- (content-) referenced interpn indics what ppn of the test items were answered correctly, thereby indicing an examinee's mastery of the content domain(s) sampled by the items. e.g., on a 100-item math test, a score of 70% is a domain-referenced score. It indics that the examinee answered 70 of the 100 items correctly.
10.24 For ppl w/ Specific Phobia, Blood-Injury-Injection Type:
a. relaxation techniques are the tx-of-choice
b. relaxation techniques have gd short-term but poor long-term effects
c. relaxation techniques are most effective when they incl in vivo exposure to feared stimuli
d. relaxation techniques are normally contraindicated
10.24 Specific Phobia, Blood-Injury-Injection Type is assoced w/ a unique physiol. reaction to feared stimuli and, therefore, reqs a tx approach that differs from those used w/ other forms of the DO.
d. CORRECT - For ppl w/ the Blood-Injury-Injection Type, feared stimuli produce an initial inc in HR and BP, which is immed followed by a drop in both and faionting. In contrast, ppl w/ other types of Specific Phobia experience only an inc in HR and BP. Because of the physiol. response assoced w/ the Blood-Injury-Injection Type, tx involves tensing (rather than relaxing) muscles in the presence of feared stimuli.
10.26 According to Derald Sue, an Af-Am adult who feels there is little she can do to overcome racial oppression and, as a result, is chronically anxious has:
a. an external locus of control and an external locus of responsibility
b. an external locus of control and an internal locus of responsibility
c. an internal locus of control and an external locus of responsibility
d. an internal locus of control and an internal locus of responsibility
10.26 Derald Sue describes an indiv's worldview in terms of 2 dims - locs of control and locus of responsibility.
a. CORRECT - Sue proposes that members of minority grps who have an external locus of control and external locus of responsibility are likely to exhibit "learned helplessness." He argues that the best approach w/ these indivs in therapy is to teach them new coping strategies, arrange for opports to experience success, and validate who and what they represent.
10.36 When recommending a tx regimen for a client w/ migraine headaches, it is important to keep in mind that:
a. the research has shown that thermal biofeedback is superior to autogenic training in terms of effectiveness
b. the research has shown that autogenic training is superior to thermal biofeedback in terms of effectiveness
c. a combination of thermal biofeedback and autogenic training is considered effective although the research has not conclusively demonstrated that the combined tx is superior to either thermal biofeedback or autogenic training alone
d. a combination of thermal biofeedback and autogenic training has not been conclusively found by the research to be superior to self-monitoring of headaches
c. CORRECT - This is best conclusion about use of biofeedback plus relaxation for migraine headaches, which - apart from drugs - is the most common intervention.
d. Incorrect - The combined tx has been shown to be more effective than self-monitoring.
10.70 Two students - Nancy and Pete - received their percentile rank on a college entrance exam. Nancy scored at the 52nd %ile, whereas Pete scored at the 14th %ile. Subseqly, the examination service notified Nancy and Pete that there was an error in the scoring procedure for their test scores only. A re-score of their responses revealed that 5 pts wd be added to their raw scores. Assuming that the exam scores are normally distributed, how wd this impact their standing?
a. Their %ile ranks wd not change.
b. Both their %ile ranks wd inc the same amt.
c. Pete's %ile rank wd inc more than Nancy's.
d. Nancy's %ile rank wd inc more than Pete's.
10.70 This qn is about how change in raw score for 2 indivs will impact their %ile rank. Both Nancy and Pete had 5 pts added to their orig exam score. Before the pts were added to their exam score, Nancy scored at the 52nd %ile which is close to the middle of the distribn, whereas Pete scored at the 14th %ile which is close to the low end of the distribn. Another factor is that the scores are normally distribed, in other words, there are more scores in middle of distribn.
a. Incorrect - This is false; adding 5 pt to their raw scores wd change both their %iles.
b. Incorrect - This is false, while both their %ile ranks wd inc, they wd not inc the same amt.
c. Incorrect - False, Pete's %ile rank wd not inc more than Nancy's.
d. CORRECT - In normal distribn, more scores are close to middle of distribn (e.g., 52nd %ile) than at tail of distribn (14th %ile), so by adding 5 pts to Nancy's raw score, she will surpass more people because her score was close to middle of distribn. In contrast, by adding 5 pts to Pete's raw score, it will have less impact on his rel standing because there are fewer scores at the tail of the distribn. As a results, Nancy's %ile rank wd inc more.
10.77 The criminal justice system provides intervention at what level of prevention.
a. primary
b. secondary
c. tertiary
d. quartiary
10.77 Methods of prevention are classified based on the level of intervention. Primary prevention focuses on all members of an identified grp. Secondary prevention targets specific indivs who are at high risk. Tertiary prevention intervenes after the incidence of the beh.
c. CORRECT - The criminal justice system wd intervene after an indiv engages in a criminal act.
10.82 The key reqmts for successful mastery modeling are:
a. adeq cues and contingent reinforcemt
b. spaced practice and time for reflection
c. a high-status model and intrinsic motivation
d. guided practice and early success
10.82 On the exam, you may encounter qns that actually ask about something you are familiar with but you may not realize that because the qn or responses contain language that you aren't familiar with.
d. CORRECT - If you think about Bandura's research on participant modeling, you might recall that modeling is most effective when it involves guided and graded practice. The reason for graded practice (starting out w/ something easier and wking toward more diffic responses) is that the indiv will experience early success.
10.90 Manny Mnemonic complains of memory loss. An eval of Manny reveals impaired immed memory, forced-choice recogn memory worse than chance, and a loss of info reled to personal identity. These sxs are most suggestive of:
a. organic chronic global amnesia
b. organic temporary amnesia
c. fnal amnesia
d. malingered amnesia
10.90 Amnesia may be organic or functional or might be faked.
a. Incorrect - The loss of info reled to personal identity suggests that the amnesia is not due to organic causes.
c. Incorrect - Although a loss of info about personal identity is characteristic of fnal amnesia, the other sxs are not. In Dissociative Amnesia, remote memory is more impaired than recent memory and perf. on a forced-choice task wd not be worse than what wd be expected by chance.
d. CORRECT - There is no definitive way to disting malingered (faked) amnesia from other types. The best method is to look at thte pattern of memory loss. The combo of sxs listed in the qn are most suggestive of malingering.
10.97 The view that depn is the result of exposure to an aversive event coupled with the tendency to attribute negative events to personal, global, and stable factors is consis with:
a. the reformulated learned helplessness model
b. the fundamtal attribution bias
c. the orig aversive events model
d. the self-fulfilling prophecy
a. CORRECT - In the late 1970s, the learned helplessness model was expanded to incl the role of attribns. (Note that the most recent version of the model also includes the notion of hopelessness and considers some forms of depn to be a combo of an aversive event, a depressive attribn style, and a sense of hopelessness.)
b. Incorrect - The fundamtal attribn bias refers to the tendency to attrib the beh of others to dispositional factors.
c. Incorrect - This is a made-up term.
d. Incorrect - The self-fulfilling prophecy effect occurs when Person A's expectations about Person B affect how Person B performs.
10.98 A psyc wking at an alcohol rehab clinic is conducting a study to det if tx length is reled to relapse. She adds 4 weeks to the std 12-wk program and randomly assigns one-half of the current clinic clients to the extended 16-week treatment and the other half to the std 12-wk tx. Relapse is measured as the no. of times an indiv drinks during the 3 mths following the end of his tx prog. The appropr correln coeff for the data collected in this study is:
a. Pearson r
b. tetrachoric
c. point biserial
d. Spearman rho
10.98 In this sitn, there is 1 continuous variable (relapse rate) and one dichotomous variable (tx length - 12 weeks or 16 weeks).
a. Incorrect - This wd be the approp correl. coeff. if tx length was also a continuous variable (e.g., the possible values were 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and so on).
b. Incorrect - The tetrachoric coefficient is used when both variables are continuous but have been artificially dichotomized.
c. CORRECT - The pt biserial coeff is used when one variable is continuous and the other is a true dichotomy. (In this case, tx length is a true dichotomy because Ss rec either a 12-week or 16-week program. It wd be an artificial dichotomy if Ss rec'd progs of diff lengths and it was decided to put all Ss who received 12 weeks or less in one grp and 13 wks or more in another grp.)
d. Incorrect - The Spearman rho (rank-ordered) correln coeff is used when data on both variables are ranks.
10.102 The attorney of a former client of yours requests that you prov her w/ test data and other info included in the client's file. You shd:
a. release the info since the request comes from the client's attorney
b. release the info as requested only if you feel it is in the best ints of the client
c. release the info as requested only if the client has signed a waiver
d. release the info as requested only if the client has signed a waiver and you believe the attorney is qualified to interpret the info
10.102 Several issues need to be taken into consideration: Most relevant are concerns about client confidentiality and the attorney's ability to interp the info.
b. Incorrect - This is certainly of concern, but this is not best response because it overlks 2 other important concerns: the client's confidentiality and the attorney's ability to interpret the data included in the records.
d. CORRECT - Even when the client has signed a waiver, a psyc has an ethical obligtaion to ensure that the person who will be receiving the info is qualified to interpret it.
10.104 When conducting a fnal analysis, you are inted in:
a. underlying motivations
b. causes of poor perf.
c. controlling conditions
d. program costs and benefits
10.104 Fnal analysis is a type of behal assessmt, and as its name implies, involves identifying the fn (purpose) of a beh.
a. Incorrect - Underlying motivations don't fit the behal model.
b. Incorrect - In some sitns, a fnal analysis may be useful for this purpose, but it has other purposes as well.
c. CORRECT - From the behal perspective, a beh is controlled by its antecedents and conseqs, and its fn is defined in terms of those variables.
d. Incorrect - Program costs and benefits aren't relevant to fnal analysis
10.105 Prospective memory:
a. is an aspect of wking memory
b. contains memories of one's personal experiences
c. refers to "remembering to remember"
d. refers to "knowing about knowing"
10.105 Prospective memory refers to the ability to 'remember to remember" (e.g., to remember an appt in the future).
a. Incorrect - Wking memory is an aspect of STM.
b. Incorrect - This refers to episodic memory.
c. CORRECT - Remembering that you have a Dr's appt on Thursday at 3 p.m. deps on prospective memory.
10.110 Recent research suggests that, in terms of predicting job perf, "g" (general cognitive ability):
a. is useful only for mgerial and other professional jobs
b. is useful only for predicting perf in traditionally "male" jobs
c. is not as accurate as specific ability tests for many different types of jobs
d. is predictive of per. across a wide variety of jobs
10.110 The current thinking about "g" is that it is a gd predr of job perf. for a wide range of jobs.
d. CORRECT - Meta-analyses of the lit. suggest that general cog ability is reled to job perf. across a variety of jobs and that specific ability tests explain little addnal variability in perf. over that explained by g.
10.117 Nonsexist therapy, in comparison to feminist therapy, places greater emphasis on:
a. the impact of sex roles and sexism
b. modification of personal beh
c. txing men and women the same
d. the egalitarian nature of the therapeutic relnship
10.117 To a large degree, nonsexist therapy and feminist therapy overlap.
a. Incorrect - This is characteristic of both forms of therapy.
b. CORRECT - While feminist therapy produces change in personal beh, that change is more consisly framed w/in the sociopolitical arena in which it occurs. In contrast, nonsexist therapy, while recoging socioopolitical influences, also lks at personal change separately.
c. Incorrect - Both types of therapy advocate that men and women be txed as equals but not necessarily the same.
d. Incorrect - This is an explicit goal of feminist therapy and, perhaps to a lesser deg, a characteristic of nonsexist therapy.
10.119 One of your current clients is a 31-yr old man who was sexually abused as a child. During the fifth session, he tells you that he's been having fantasies about sexual contacts w/ children. He says he has not acted on these feelings but is concerned about them. You shd:
a. advise him that you are req'd to make a report w/ the authorities.
b. attempt to det the deg of risk that he will act on his fantasies.
c. tell him that this is not unusual for someone who has been sexually abused and continue to wk on this issue in therapy
d. contact his wife to see if she has noticed any changes in the beh of their 3 children
10.119 A psyc is req'd to report suspected or known cases of child abuse. From the info presented in this qn, however, there is no reason to suspect that abuse has actually occurred.
b. CORRECT - This is best response. Obviously, the man's fantasies are a "red flag" that must be taken seriously and dealt w/ directly.
10.125 Goal-setting theory, equity theory, and expectancy theory share in common which of the following:
a. a focus on peer (co-wker) influences on job perf.
b. the premise that beh is motivated by its conseqs.
c. the belief that feedback is a necess condition of effort.
d. the assumption that human cognition affects beh.
10.125 The 3 theories are cog theories that view motivation and perf as dirly linked to cog events.
d. CORRECT - The cog event in goal-setting theory is the conscious acceptance of the goals; in equity theory it is self-other comparisons; and in expectancy theory it is beliefs reled to effort/perf and perf/outcomes.
10.129 Dr. Muzak wts to det if background music (music vs. no music) affects perf. on 3 diff cog tasks. Ss will rec all combos of all levels of music and task, but they will be admined in a diff order to diff subgrps of Ss. This is an e.g. of which research design:
a. split-plot
b. randomized block
c. Solomon
d. Latin Square
10.129 This qn describes a type of w/in-Ss design.
a. Incorrect - When using a split-plot (mixed) design, the study has at least one b/w-grps variable and one w/in-Ss variable.
b. Incorrect - In a randomized block design, at least one of the IVs is a blocking (extraneous) variable, and Ss w/in each block are randomly assigned to levels of another IV.
c. Incorrect - The Solomon four-grp design is used to measure the effects of pretesting on a study's internal and external validity.
d. CORRECT - The Latin Square design is a type of w/in-Ss design in which the order of the diff levels of the IV(s) are counterbalanced (applied to diff Ss or subgrps of Ss in a diff order).
10.132 When a psyc's wk w/ clients will be supervised:
a. the client must be told about this arrangemt
b. the client must be told about this arrangemt and be given the supervisor's name
c. the client must be told about this arrangemt only if his/her identity cannot be disguised in discussions w/ the supervisor
d. the client must be told about this arrangemt, and when the supervisor has legal responsibility for the case, must also be given the supervisor's name
10.132 This issue is addressed by Std 4.01 of the Ethics Code.
c. Incorrect - This sounds more like the req'mt for consultation.
d. CORRECT - The req'mts for consultation and supervision are diff and, even in a supervisory relnship, the info that must be given to the client varies, deping on the exact nature of the supervision. A client must always be told when a psyc is being supervised but need to be told the supervisor's name when the supervisor is legally responsible for the case.
10.135 Apraxia, or the inability to perform a motor act (e.g., to draw a simple picture or to wave "hello"), is most suggestive of damage to the:
a. frontal lobe
b. parietal lobe
c. temporal lobe
d. occipital lobe
10.135 The parietal lobe is adjacent to the motor area and contains the somatic sensory area, which provs info about the movable parts of the body. Conseqly, damage to the parietal lobe can produce certain types of sensory-motor deficits.
b. CORRECT - Damage to the parietal lobe is assoced w/ a no. of abnormalities in movemt and sensation incl various types of apraxia.
10.138 Dr. Dun recs a letter from another psyc requesting a former client's records. Included w/ the letter is a signed waiver from the client. Dr. Dun decides not to prov the psyc w/ the requested records because the client owes her for five past sessions and has not responded to Dr. Dun's requests for paymt. According to the Ethics Code, this is:
a. unacceptable because it is unethical to "hold records hostage."
b. acceptable as long as Dr. Dun has informed the client of her intent to w/hold the records until she recs paymt
c. acceptable as long as Dr. Dun dets that the records are not imminently needed
d. acceptable as long as Dr. Dun dets that w/holding the records is not clin. contraindicated.
10.138 In most cases, it wd be unethical to withhld records because a client has not paid his or her bill. However, this is not an absolute prohibition.
b. Incorrect - If a psyc decides to withhld records after deting they are not imminently needed, it wd certainly be a gd idea to inform the client of the sitn. However, simply informing the client w/out deting the client's need for the records wd be insufficient.
c. CORRECT - This sitn is covered in Std 5.11 of the Ethics Code. It states that psycs shd not withhld records when they are "imminently needed" suggesting that, if this is not the case, it might be acceptable to do so.
d. Incorrect - Response C is a better answer because it contains the language of the Ethics Code.
10.142 Projective identification is illustrated by which of the following:
a. a woman who doesn't wt to own her feelings of love and hate manips another person into experiencing them
b. a child kicks and pushes his mother away from him even though he actually longs for her attn
c. a man continuously interps his wife's beh as an attempt to "mother" him
d. a therapist reacts to lower-SES clients in ways consis w/ stereotypes she formed during her childhd
10.142 Klein introduced the notion of projective identification and defined it as a mechanism that is revealed in fantasies in which the subject inserts the self (in part or whole) into the object in order to possess or control the object. It can be considered a type of projection.
a. CORRECT - Projective identification underlies a no. of pathological conditions and is responsible for severe difficulties in esting one's own identity and in feeling secure enough to est relnships w/ others.
c. Incorrect - This sounds like transference.
d. Incorrect - This is an e.g. of theme interference
10.143 Ss in a research study are asked to tap w/ a finger to keep time w/ a metronome. After several taps, the metronome is turned off and Ss are asked to continue w/ the same beat. Ss w/ damage to which of the following areas of the brain will have the most difficy w/ this task:
a. cerebellum
b. basal ganglia
c. cortex
d. hippocampus
a. CORRECT - This qn describes a study by Keele and Ivry who prpose that an underlying imparimt in cerebellar damage is a loss of timing. In their study, pts w/ cerebellar damage had more trouble on this task than pts w/ damage to the cortex or basal ganglia, leading these authors to conclude that the cerebellum is involved in the timing of movemts.
10.144 Dr. Burgher is the only psyc in a small town. His daughter's girl scout leader wts to beg seeing Dr. Burgher to wk through some family-reled probs. As an ethical psyc, Dr. Burgher shd:
a. refuse to see the woman because to do so wd constitute a "muliple relnship"
b. see the woman since he is the only psyc in town and her probs are unreled to her role as girl scout leader
c. det the seriousness of the woman's probs and base his decision about seeing the woman on the outcome of that eval
d. assess the potal for exploitation and loss of objectivity and base his decision about seeing the woman on the outcome of that assessmt
10.144 Std 1.17 of Ethics Code addresses multiple relnships. Multiple relnships should ordinarily be avoided, but not completely prohibited.
a. Incorrect - Because the psyc is the only one in town, you'd wt some addnal info before deciding that he shd not see his d's girl scout leader.
b. Incorrect - This might be acceptable, but you'd wt the response to mention s-th about the psyc's ethical responsibilities in this sitn.
c. Incorrect - This is one of the factors that a psyc might consider in this sitn but is certainly not the only one.
d. CORRECT - This is best answer - reiterates the actual language of Ethics Code.
10.145 According to Beck, ideas or images that come w/out effort and that elicit an emotional reaction are:
a. cog distortions
b. automatic thoughts
c. prototypes
d. schemata
10.145 Beck distings b/w automatic thoughts, cog distortions, and cog schemas.
a. Incorrect - Cog distortions are maladaptive ways of processing info and may underlie automatic thoughts.
b. CORRECT - This is accurate description of automatic thoughts, which occur automatically and elicit an emotional response.
c. Incorrect - Prototypes are models that contain the most salient or typical features of an event, object, etc.
d. Incorrect - Schemata are cog structures that guide an indiv's perceptions and appraisals.
10.147 In comparison to nonabusive parents, parents who phys. abuse their children:
a. are more permissive w/ their children
b. use phys. punishmt more often
c. find their children's affective states more irritating
d. have ltd knowledge about child dvpt
10.147 Extensive research has been conducted to identify characteristics that disting abusive from nonabusive parents. Few specific characteristics have, however, been found.
a. Incorrect - This has not been found to be true about abusive parents.
b. Incorrect - Contrary to what might be expected, abusive and nonabusive parents resort to phys. punishmt at about the same rate. The diff is that abusive parents rely on harsher phys. punishmts.
c. CORRECT - One fairly consis finding is that abusive parents are more easily irritated and annoyed by their children, at least in part, because they tend to misinterpret their children's behs in a negative way.
d. Incorrect - Contrary to what might be expected, the research has not found consis. diffs in the knowledge of abusive and nonabusive parents about child dvpt.
10.166 When using the split-half method to estimate the reliability of a speed test:
a. the split of the test into two halves shd be done in a random way
b. the split of the test into two halves shd be done on the basis of odd-vs-even numbered items
c. the resulting reliability coeff will overestimate the reliability of the test
d. the resulting reliability coeff will underestimate the reliability of the test
10.166 Internal consistency reliability is generally not used to assess the reliability of speed tests because it produces a spuriously high reliablity coefficient.
a. Incorrect - This procedure will not overcome the prob w/ using split-half reliability for this type of test.
b. Incorrect - This wd also not overcome the bias introduced by using this method of assessing reliability.
c. CORRECT - Split-half and other forms of internal consistency reliability overestimate the reliability of a speed test.
d. Incorrect - This is oppos. of what is true.
10.167 Self-appraisal and self-mgmt of cognition are aspects of:
a. procedural memory
b. semantic memory
c. exec control
d. meta-cognition
10.167 The qn is asking about understding of one's own cog processes and the ability to control (manage) those processes.
a. Incorrect - Procedural memory refers to memory for "how thgs get done" (e.g., how to ride a bike).
b. Incorrect - Semantic memory is memory for the meaning of words and concepts.
c. Incorrect - This is only partially correct since exec control is one aspect of metacognition
d. CORRECT - Metacognition is divided into 2 aspects: self-understding of one's own cog processes (self-appraisal) and exec control (self-mgmt).
10.173 Which of the following is true about suicide rates:
a. the rate for white males incs until age 65 and thereafter gradually declines
b. the rate for white males incs somewhat w/ age until age 65 when it begs to show a much sharper increase
c. the rates for white males and white females begin to converge at about age 45
d. the rates for white males and black males are closest at about age 45
10.173 The suicide rates for white males are substantially higher than the rates for white females and Af-Am males and females throughout most of the lifespan. The only exception is that white males and Af-Am males have similar rates in adolescence and young adulthd (although the rate for white males is still higher).
b. CORRECT - After early adulthood, the rates for white males inc v. slowly up to age 65 when there is a sharp rise in the rate that continues through the rest of the lifespan.
10.177 Employee X is thinking about filing a sexual harassmt suit against her boss, Supervisor Y. He makes a habit of complimting Employee X on how she lks, often w/ a "wolf whistle" and this makes Employee X feel v. uncomfortable. Employee X decides to tell Supervisor Y that she finds his beh offensive. Supervisor Y says he "means no harm" but that he'll stop if that's what she sts. This sitn:
a. reps sexual harassmt because Supervisor Y is in a pos. of authority
b. reps sexual harassmt because Supervisor Y's comments have created a hostile wk environmt for Employee X
c. reps sexual harassmt only if it is deted that a "reasonable woman" wd find Supervisor Y's beh offensive
d. does not rep sexual harassmt as long as Supervisor Y actually stops making comments about Employee X's appearance
10.177 Sexual harassmt laws and policies continue to be reinterped but, in this case, there does not seem to be grounds for a sexual harassmt suit.
a. Incorrect - When the harasser is in a pos. of power, this incs the likelihd that a claimant will win a suit. However, the harasser's status is not all that is taken into consideration.
b. Incorrect - If Supervisor Y continues w/ his comments after being asked to stop, then this might be the case.
c. Incorrect - The "reasonable woman" std is used to det if a person's actions constitute sexual harassmt but, if the supervisor stops his beh, it is unlikely that the employee wd have grounds for a suit against him.
d. CORRECT - If the harassmt is not severe and the person stops when asked, it is unlikely that the act wd be found to constitute sexual harassmt.
10.182 The basic premise underlying goal-setting theory is that:
a. participation in goals is necess to ensure commitmt to them
b. a person's conscious goals and intentions regulate his or her actual beh
c. a person will wk to achieve orgal goals only when they are consis w/ his/her self-concept
d. the willingness to wk toward achieving orgal goals is a fn of a person's self-efficacy beliefs
10.182 In goal-setting theory, acceptance of goals is considered to be of paramount importance.
a. Incorrect - Although participation in goals can inc one's acceptance (and intentions), it is not considered necessary.
b. CORRECT - Acceptance is the critical factor: A person must consciously accept the goals and intend to achieve them.
c. Incorrect - This is not a prediction made by goal-setting theory (although it wd contribute to a person's acceptance of goals).
d. Incorrect - This is also not a prediction of goal-setting theory
10.186 ____________ involves fixed-action patterns that rep unlearned behs, are species-specific, and appear to be released in the presence of certain stimuli:
a. Imprinting
b. Cross-cuing
c. Transduction
d. Maturation
10.186 The language in the qn may have been a little confusing (i.e., "fixed action patterns") but considering the alternative response may have helped you figure out what was being asked.
a. CORRECT - This is defn of imprinting. Lorenz's geese imprinted on him during the critical period shortly following their birth.
b. Incorrect - Cross-cuing refers to a technique used by split-brain pts participating in expts that allows them to correctly respond to certain types of tasks.
c. Incorrect - Transduction is the conversion of one form of energy into another.
d. Incorrect - Maturation refers to systematic changes in beh that occur w/ incing age due to genetically-defined patterns of neural dvpt.
10.189 The Americans with Disabilities Act:
a. does not address the issue of drug testing
b. permits drug testing only after a job offer has been made
c. permits drug testing before or after a job offer has been made
d. prohibits drug testing until after a job applicant has been hired and there is reason to suspect drug use
10.189 The Americans w/ Disabilities Act protects the rights of ppl w/ phys. and mental disabilities.
c. CORRECT - Although ADA permits only post-offer, pre-employmt medical exams, it explicitly excludes drug testing as a medical exam. In other words, drug testing is not prohibited at any time during pre-employmt or employmt.
10.196 Which of the following is true about informed consent in research:
a. an informed consent is not req'd only when the proposed deception meets the req'mts set forth in the Ethics Code
b. an informed consent is req'd only when the research has a potal to cause phys. or psycal harm
c. before dispensing w/ informed consent, a psyc shd det if the study falls into one of the acceptable categories listed in the Ethics Code
d. before dispensing w/ informed consent, a psyc shd consider applicable regulations and, if necessary, consult w/ colleagues
10.196 Informed consents are addressed in Stds 6.11 and 6.12 of the Ethics Code.
a. Incorrect - Certainly, an informed consent cannot be obted when a study involves deception, but there are other circs when an informed consent is not necessary, so this is not best response.
b. Incorrect - The potal for harm is one of the considerations when deting whether an informed consent is needed, but it is not the only consideration.
c. Incorrect - Although the Code does mention a few instances when a consent wd be unnecessary, it does not prov a definitive list of those sitns and, conseqly, this is not best answer.
d. CORRECT - Most consis w/ language of Ethics Code.