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211 Cards in this Set

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To maintain optimal blood glucose concentrations of school-age children, how often should they eat?
Every 4 hours
Which of the following is a feature of energy metabolism in infancy?
Infants fed fat-free milk are at risk for protein overload.
What would be a normal body weight after 1 year for a healthy infant with a birthweight of 8 lbs.?
24 lbs.
Infants showing symptoms of acidosis, dehydration, diarrhea, elevated blood ammonia and urea, and fever may be reacting to the nutritional problem of?
protein overload
The recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals for infants are based on?
The average amounts ingested by thriving infants breastfed by well-nourished mothers.
What is the approximate energy requirement of infants, in kcal/kg body weight?
100
When expressed per kilogram body weight, the nutrient needs of infants are markedly higher than those of adults for all of the following nutrients except?
Iron
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Canadian Pediatric Society, breastfeeding of full-term infants is:
Strongly recommended
What is the chief reason that breast-fed infants usually need to eat more frequently than formula-fed infants?
Breast milk is digested faster.
For optimal breast-feeding benefits, it is recommended that the infant be encouraged to suckle on each breast for about?
10-15 minutes
Which of the following is a feature of infant development and nutrition?
Breast-fed infants generally score higher on tests of mental development than do formula-fed infants
Which of the following is a finding of the importance of fatty acid intake of preterm infants fed formulas?
Formulas enriched with docosohexanoic acid and arachidonic acid resulted in improved visual acuity in comparison to standard formulas.
What is the chief protein in human breast milk?
alpha-lactalbumin
Breast milk as the sole source of nutrition, up to the first 6 months in healthy infants, is satisfactory for all nutrients except?
Vitamin D
Nutrient characteristics of human breast milk include all of the following except?
The Vitamin D content meets optimal growth requirements.
Which of the following vitamin-mineral supplements need not be prescribed for an infant breastfed beyond 6 months of age?
Vitamin E
What is colostrum?
Milk-like substance secreted right after birth.
Which of the following is an advantage of breastfeeding compared with formula feeding?
It provides immunological protection.
Which of the following is associated with bifidus factors?
Increased bacterial growth
What is the factor in breast milk that binds iron and prevents it from supporting the growth of the infant's intestinal bacterial?
Lactoferrin
What is lactadherin?
A breast milk protein that inactivates a GI virus that causes diarrhea
In comparison with cow's milk, breast milk contains?
Less protein and calcium.
Which of the following sources of nutrition for infants is least likely to become contaminated with microorganisms?
Breast milk
To gradually replace breast milk with infant formula or other foods appropriate to an infant's diet is to?
Wean
Features of infant formulas include all of the following except:
They contain antibodies
What type of formula is available for infants with milk allergy?
Soy
Which of the following is a common source of lead poisoning in infants?
Contaminated water used to make infant formula.
What is the most realistic advice for reducing lead exposure content of tap water used to prepare infant formula?
Since the first water drawn from the tap each day is highest in lead, let the water run a few minutes before using it.
Goat's milk is inappropriate for infants due to its low content of?
Protein
An infant diagnosed with "goat's milk anemia" is most likely deficient in?
Folate
A reasonable weight for a healthy five-month-old infant who weighed 8 pounds at birth might be?
16 pounds
Dehydration can develop quickly in infants because?
Much of their body water is extracellular.
An infant should begin eating solid foods between?
4 and 6 months
Among U.S. and Canadian children, the most prevalent nutrient deficiency is of:
Iron
A true food allergy always:
Elicits an immune response.
Which of the following strategies is NOT effective?
Use dessert as a reward for eating vegetables.
To help teenagers consume a balanced diet, parents can:
Keep the pantry and refrigerator well stocked.
During adolescence, energy and nutrient needs:
Reach a peak.
The nutrients most likely to fall short in the adolescent diet are:
Iron and calcium.
To balance the day's intake, an adolescent who eats a hamburger, fries, and cola at lunch might benefit most from a dinner of:
Spaghetti with meat sauce, broccoli, and milk.
What fraction of the U.S. population is at least 65 years old?
1/8
How long in years is the potential human life span?
80
Approximately how many years is the human life span?
115
What is the life expectancy of males and females in the U.S.?
68-80
What would be the physiological age of a 75-year old woman whose physical health is equivalent to that of her 50-year old daughter?
50 years
What is the fastest-growing age group in the U.S.
Over 85 years
Approximately what percentage of a person's life expectancy is under control of her genes?
25%
Approximately what percentage of a person's life expectancy is dependent upon his personal behavior?
75%
Which of the following is a proposed mechanism for energy restriction and improvement of longevity in animals?
Reduction in oxidative stress
Which of the following is a finding from studies of diet restriction in rats?
Energy-restricted diets led to lowering of the metabolic rate and body temperature.
Studies of adults show that longevity is related, in part, to all of the following except?
Short periods of sleep
Which of the following is a feature of energy intake and longevity?
Improvements in longevity depend on reducing energy intake but not on body fat content.
All of the following are characteristics of body weight and older people except?
A higher body weight reduces the risk of sarcopenia.
What is sarcopenia?
Loss of muscle mass and strength
A person with dysphagia has?
Difficulty in swallowing.
A person who is edentulous has?
No teeth.
Which of the following is a characteristic of aging and the immune system?
Antibiotics are often ineffective in treating old people who have deficient immune systems.
Atrophic gastritis is typically characterized by all of the following signs except:
Insufficient secretion of pepsinogen and gastrin.
Studies of the eating habits of older adults demonstrate all of the following except?
Women living alone eat less than women living with others.
Among the elderly, malnutrition is most common in those?
In nursing homes.
A person with a pressure ulcer has damage to her?
Skin
Approximately what percentage decline in basal metabolism is seen in an 80-year-old person compared with a 40-year-old?
4-8
Approximately what percentage decline in total energy expenditure in seen in a 70-year-old versus a 30-year-old?
20
What is the highest age group recognized in the Dietary Reference Intakes?
71 years and older
Which of the following describes the nutrient needs of older people?
They vary according to individual histories.
Which of the following is a feature of elderly people and water metabolism?
They do not feel thirsty or recognize dryness of the mouth.
What is the minimum number of glasses of water per day recommended for older adults?
6
The prevalence of overweight diminishes with aging, starting after age.
65
Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly is least likely to occur from?
Insufficient intake of vitamin B 12.
Life expectancy in the US is:
68 to 80 years
The human life span is about:
130 years.
A 72-year-old whose physical health is similar to that of people 10 years younger has a(n):
Physiological age of 62
Rats live longest when given diets that:
Restrict their energy intakes.
Which characteristic is not commonly associated with atrophic gastritis?
Vitamin B 12 toxicity
On average, adult energy needs:
Decline 5 percent per decade.
Which nutrients seem to protect against cataract development?
Antioxidants
The best dietary advice for a person with osteoarthritis might be to:
Lose weight, if overweight.
Congregate meal programs are preferable to Meals on Wheels because they provide:
Social Interactions
The Elderly Nutrition Program is available to:
All people 60 years and older.
Chapter 18 Class Lecture
The immune system treats foreign substances such as bacteria and toxins as?
Antigens
The most important organs of the immune system include all of the following except?
Muscle
What percentage of cells of the body are white-blood cells
One
Immunoglobulins are produced primarily by?
B Cells
Functions of the T cells include all of the following except?
Production of antibodies
Common cell types that make up the immune system include all of the following except?
P-Cells
The process by which immune cells engulf and then destroy bacteria is known as
Phagocytosis
Presently, HIV is known to be transmitted by direct contact with contaminated body fluids from all of the following sources except?
Saliva
Initial confirmation HIV infection after exposure to the virus takes about?
1-3 months
About 50% of people with HIV infection will progress to AIDS within?
10 years
What term identifies the involuntary loss of more than 10?% of body weight?
Wasting syndrome
What term describes an infection that becomes life-threatening in a person with a depressed immune system but not in an individual with a normal immune system?
Opportunistic infection
What type of lymphocytes are most affected by infection with HIV?
CD4+
The progression of HIV in a person is best monitored by measuring the?
Levels of blood CD4+ cells
What is the most common micronutrient deficiency in people with HIV infection?
Zinc
All of the following are characteristics of nutrition in people with HIV infection except?
The DRI Committee and the American Medical Association have devised specific dietary strategies for treatment.
The diseases most common today include all of the following except?
Tuberculosis
Of the ten leading causes of illness and death, how many are associated directly with nutrition?
4
Which of the following leading causes of death in the United States does not bear a relationship to diet?
Pneumonia and influenza
Which of the following risk factors for disease may be modified by diet?
Low HDL level
Being obese is known to increase the probabilities of contracting all of the following diseases except?
Kwashiorkor
All of the following disorders are influenced strongly by genetics except?
Diverticulosis
What is the term given to mounds of lipid material mixed with smooth muscle cells and calcium that develop in the artery walls?
Plaques
By what age do most people first have well-developed arterial plaque?
30
What is prehypertension?
Slightly high blood pressure
Which of the following blood pressure readings first signifies a diagnosis of hypertension?
140 over 90
What blood cholesterol carrier is of greatest concern in atherosclerosis?
LDL
All of the following are features of low-density lipoproteins and coronary heart disease except?
Excess LDL cholesterol in the blood is removed by high-density lipoproteins.
A person who produces a normal amount of insulin but whose cells show suboptimal response is said to be?
Insulin resistant
Chapter 18 Text questions
The immune cells most seriously damaged by HIV are:
T-Cells
People with HIV infections are most susceptible to:
Food poisoning
The leading cause of death in the United States is?
Heart Disease
Plaques in the arteries contribute to the development of:
Atherosclerosis
Which blood lipid correlates directly with heart disease?
LDL
Moderate amounts of alcohol may protect against heart disease by:
Preventing clot formation
What is the most effective strategy for most people to lower their blood pressure?
Lose weight
In diabetes, when glucose fails to enter the cells and metabolism shifts to break down protein and fat for energy:
Ketone production increases.
The most important dietary strategy in diabetes is to:
Provide for a consistent carbohydrate intake.
Which of the following help(s) to protect against cancer?
Phytochemicals
Chapter 19 Class Lecture
The potential of a substance to harm someone is known as a?
Toxicity
What term describes the possibility of harm from normal use of a substance?
Toxicity
Which of the following appears first on the Food and Drug Administration's priority concerns for food safety?
Environmental contaminants
According to the Centers for Disease Control, how many people in the Unites States experience foodborne illness every year?
76 Million
What branch of the Department of Health and Human Services is responsible for monitoring foodborne illness?
CDC
What is the international agency that has adopted standards to regulate the use of pesticides?
WHO
What is the leading cause of food contamination in the United States?
Food poisoning from microbes
Which of the following is an example of food intoxication?
Illness produced from ingestion of food contaminated with natural toxins.
Which of the following is the major food source for transmission of Campylobacter jejuni?
Raw poultry
Clostridium botulinum poisoning is a hazard associated with?
Improperly canned vegetables
Which of the following is a characteristic of botulism illness?
It is caused by a toxic compound rather than by invasion of pathogenic bacteria.
Which of the following is a characteristic of botulism:
A full recovery may take years.
A child is brought into the emergency room with breathing difficulties. He also has difficulty swallowing and speaking. The mother mentions that he ate some homemade canned beans yesterday. You suspect microbiological food poinoning. The most likely toxin is:
Botulinum
Which of the following has caused botulism poisoning in infants:
Honey
What organism produces the most common food toxin?
Staphylococcus aureus
What fraction of reported foodborne illnesses can be attributed to the food industry?
4/5
The industrial application of heat to inactivate most but not all bacteria in a food is commonly known as?
pasteurization
The most common symptoms of foodborne infection include all of the following except?
Double vision
Which of the following foods are associated with illness from Salmonella?
Raw meats, poultry, and eggs
A patient with a high temperature complains of headache, stomach ache, fever, and vomiting. Upon questioning, he admists to eating several raw eggs the day before. The most likely organism causing these symptoms is:
Salmonella
All of the following are rules to help prevent illness from Salmonella except?
Use hands to mix foods.
Of the millions of imported shipments of raw foods arriving in U.S. ports each year, approximately what percentage is not inspected by the FDA?
98
What system was developed by government regulatory agencies and the food industry to help identify and/or control food contamination and foodborne disease?
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
Which of the following would most likely result from placing cooked hamburger patties on the same plate that held the uncooked patties?
Microbial cross-contamination
To minimize the possibility of foodborne illness, hamburger should be cooked to an internal temperature of at least?
160 degrees
Why is ground meat more susceptible to microbial contamination than unground meat?
It has more surface area
Which of the following is a characteristic of meat contamination?
Consumers are not able to detect the presence of harmful bacteria by odor or taste.
The seal "Graded by USDA" that appears on packaged meat and poultry means that the product is:
Assessed for tenderness
Chapter 19 Textbook questions
Eating a contaminated food such as undercooked poultry or unpasteurized milk might cause a:
Food Infection
The temperature danger zone for foods ranges from:
40 degrees to 140 degrees
Examples of foods that frequently cause foodborne illness are:
Raw milk, seafood, meat, and eggs
Irradiation can help improve our food supply by:
Killing microorganisms.
Solanine is an example of a(n):
Natural toxicant
The standard that deems additives safe if lifetime use presents no more than a one-in-a-million risk of cancer is known as the:
negligible-risk policy
Common antimicrobial additives include:
Salt and nitrites
Common antioxidants include:
BHA and BHT
Incidental additives that may enter foods during processing include:
Dioxins and BGH
Chlorine is added to water to:
Kill pathogenic microorganisms
Chapter 20 Class Notes
Which of the following is a major reason for hunger in the United States?
Poverty
What fraction of the U.S. population receives food assistance?
One-Sixth
What is the average monthly benefit for a recipient of the Food Stamp Program?
$80
Approximately how many people, in millions, are served by the U.S. Food Stamp Program?
20
What is the largest federal food assistance program in the United States:
Food Stamp Program
Food stamps may be used to purchase all of the following except?
Soap
What is the acronym for the food assistance program designed to help nutritionally at-risk children, infants, and pregnant women?
WIC
What is the name of the largest U.S. national food recovery program?
Second Harvest
A period of extreme food shortage resulting in widespread starvation and death is known as:
Famine
The worst famine in the 20th century occured in:
China
The number of malnourished people in the world is estimated at:
800 million
Approximately what number of children worldwide die each year of malnutrition?
Six million
Due to technological advances in agriculture, a loaf of bread that cost $1.00 40 years ago would now be priced at about?
$.50
What is meant by carrying capacity of the earth?
The maximum number of living organisms that can be supported in an environment over time.
Diseases of poverty are known to include all of the following except:
Diabetes
What is administered by health care workers to help treat the diarrhea and dehydration common to children suffering from diseases of poverty?
Oral rehydration therapy
Which of the following is not one of the three major factors affecting world population growth?
Scientific knowledge
What is the approximate yearly increase in the world's population?
70 million
What is the yearly percentage increase of the world's population?
One Percent
All of the following are major factors affecting population growth except:
ozone depletion
Food stamps may be used to purchase all of the following except?
Soap
What is the acronym for the food assistance program designed to help nutritionally at-risk children, infants, and pregnant women?
WIC
What is the name of the largest U.S. national food recovery program?
Second Harvest
A period of extreme food shortage resulting in widespread starvation and death is known as:
Famine
The worst famine in the 20th century occurred in:
China
The number of malnourished people in the world is estimated at:
800 million
Approximately what number of children worldwide die each year of malnutrition?
Six million
Due to technological advances in agriculture, a loaf of bread that cost $1.00 40 years ago would now be priced at about?
$.50
What is meant by carrying capacity of the earth?
The maximum number of living organisms that can be supported in an environment over time.
Diseases of poverty are known to include all of the following except:
Diabetes
What is administered by health care workers to help treat the diarrhea and dehydration common to children suffering from diseases of poverty?
Oral rehydration therapy
Which of the following is not one of the three major factors affecting world population growth?
Scientific knowledge
What is the approximate yearly increase in the world's population?
70 million
What is the yearly percentage increase of the world's population?
One Percent
All of the following are major factors affecting population growth except:
ozone depletion
What is the chief reason why people living in poverty and hunger bear numerous children?
Only a small percentage of the children may survive to adulthood.
Which of the following describes a known long-term relationship amoung poverty, hunger, and population growth?
As economic status improves, population growth diminishes.
All of the following are examples of fossil fuels except:
Solar
Worldwide food production is limited by all of the following except?
Shrinking of desert areas
Which of the following is a characteristic of farm irrigation?
It increases the salt content in the soil.
What term applies to the practice of replacing cut trees with an equal number of new ones.
Sustainable management
Which of the following is a feature of U.S. agribusiness practices?
They are used to support application of pesticides and fertilizers
What is the term given to agricultural practices that are designed to minimize use of energy and chemicals?
Sustainable agriculture
The use of computer technologies in agriculture is termed:
Precision agriculture
Precision agriculture requires the use of:
Computers
Chapter 20 Textbook questions
Food insecurity refers to the:
Limited availability of foods
The most common cause of hunger in the United States is:
Poverty
Food stamp coupons cannot be used to purchase:
Laundry detergent
Which action is not typical of a food recovery program?
Offering food stamp coupons to low-income people.
The primary cause of the worst famine in the twentieth century was:
Government policies
The most likely cause of death in malnourished children is:
Diarrheal disease
Which of the following is most critical in providing food to all the world's people?
Decreasing population growth
Which of these items is the most environmentally benign choice?
Cotton towels
Which of these methods uses the most fuel?
Baking
Which of these purchases is the best choice, for environmental reason?
Fresh fish from a local merchant