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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How many children die yearly from recurrent, chronic, infantile diarrhea?
4.6 million children globally
How do you treat an infant with intractable diarrhea of infancy (IDI)?
enteral therapy with a lactose-free, sucrose-free, medium-chain triglyceride formula often allows recovery. If enteral therapy fails, parenteral nutrition becomes necessary and curative.
What is the average duration of diarrhea from Rotavirus?
6 days
What is the average duration of diarrhea from enteric adenoviruses?
11 days
What is the average duration of diarrhea from astrovirus?
5 days
What is the average duration of diarrhea from torovirus?
fewer than 5 days
What is the average duration of diarrhea from Norwalk-like agents?
2 days
In whom may rotavirus or astrovirus infection continue for months?
in children who have defects in T-cell function such as DiGeorge syndrome, cartilage-hair hypoplasia syndrome
How long do bacterial diarrheas last?
average 14 d
From where does aeromonas infection come?
Untreated water
How long does aeromonas diarrhea last?
1 wk to 1 y
From where does Campylobacter sp infection come?
Raw poultry, diarrheic animals, unpasteurized milk, birds, water, ferrets
How long does Campylobacter sp diarrhea last?
5 d to chronic
From where does Plesiomonas shigelloides infection come?
Untreated water, shellfish
How long does Plesiomonas shigelloides diarrhea last?
2 wk to months
From where does Salmonella sp infection come?
Poultry, fecal-oral, water
How long does Salmonella sp diarrhea last?
5 d to months in infants
How long does Yersinia enterocolitica diarrhea last?
3 wk to 3 mo
From where does Brainerd diarrhea agent infection come?
Unpasteurized milk, water
How long does Brainerd diarrhea agent diarrhea last?
Many months
From where does Yersinia enterocolitica infection come?
Handling of raw pig intestines (chitterlings)
What are the consequences of nontyphoidal salmonella infection in the first weeks after birth?
many months of recurrent diarrhea, intermittent positive stool cultures, and undernutrition.
When is antibiotic treatment needed for nontyphoidal salmonella?
if bacteremia or meningitis is present
Does undernutrition resolve with antibiotic treatment?
no. the duration of the enteric infection and degree of growth impairment is not influenced favorably by such treatment. Infants may reach a point where parenteral nutrition is employed to prevent undernutrition.
Who gets diarrhea from Aeromonas and Plesiomonas sp? How?
immunocompromised children who are exposed to untreated fresh and saltwater and shellfish.
How is diarrhea from Aeromonas and plesiomonas treated?
Quinolone antibiotics and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are recommended therapy.
How is Yersinia infection acquired?
ingestion of contaminated, undercooked, or unpasteurized foods
What bacteria causes an acute appendicitis-like illness?
What diarrhea is associated with handling raw pig intestines (chitterlings)?
What is Brainerd agent?
Unknown source of outbreaks of disabling watery diarrhea lasting for more than 1 year
From where does brainerd agent come?
Epidemiologic evidence suggested unpasteurized milk or undertreated municipal water as the source
What kind of illnesses do enteric pathotypes of Escherichia coli cause?
acute, self-limiting illness, but the diarrhea may evolve to a chronic course due to persistent injury to the bowel
What kind of illness do enterohemorrhagic pathotypes of E Coli that produces Shiga toxin cause?
acute colitis and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome.
What kind of illness do Enterotoxic and mucosa-adherent E coli cause?
watery diarrhea that may lead to prolonged diarrhea due to mucosal damage or persistence of the primary infection
What is the duration of Giardia lamblia diarrhea?
2 wk to years
What is the source of Giardia lamblia diarrhea?
Diapered infants, fecal-oral, water supplies
What is the duration of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea?
1 to 2 wk (mean, 1 to 10 d), with occasional reports of 6 wk
What is the source of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea?
Child care, petting zoos, swimming pools
What is the source of Entamoeba histolytica diarrhea?
Fecal-oral, water
What is the duration of Entamoeba histolytica diarrhea?
What is the source of Cyclospora cayetanensis diarrhea?
Raspberries from Central America, water, unpasteurized apple cider
What is the duration of Cyclospora cayetanensis diarrhea?
1 wk to 1 mo or more
What is the source of Strongyloides stercoralis diarrhea?
Developing countries, Appalachia, fecal-oral
What is the duration of Strongyloides stercoralis diarrhea?
What is the source of Blastocystis hominis diarrhea?
Uncertain if a pathogen
What is the duration of Blastocystis hominis diarrhea?
Uncertain if a pathogen
From where do Giardia lamblia cysts usually come?
from unwashed hands that were in contact with infected feces
Where do Giardia outbreaks come from?
outbreaks result from contaminated drinking water, recreational pools, pets, and rarely, food
Who is at high risk for Giardia infection?
those caring for diapered children in child care, older children returning from camp, children who have immunodeficiencies, and any child whose diarrhea lasts for more than 5 days, especially if associated with other signs and symptoms of giardiasis
What is distinctive about giardia diarrhea?
The diarrhea is voluminous and odoriferous but seldom contains blood.
What are the signs and symptoms of giardiasis?
Diarrhea, Malaise, weakness, Abdominal distention, Flatulence, Abdominal cramps, Nausea, Foul-smelling, greasy stools, Anorexia, Weight loss, Vomiting
What is the most common protozoan-caused diarrhea in North America?
What is most common test for giardia?
Fecal antigen
Rare presentations of giardia?
Malaise; anasarca; retinal degeneration
Treatment of giardia?
If symptomatic, Metronidazole in a dose of 15 mg/kg for 10 days
What type of diarrhea is caused by cryptosporidium parvum?
watery diarrhea that often continues for 2 weeks and occasionally for longer
How is cryptosporidium transmitted?
infection results from ingestion of the organism from fecal contamination of the hands of caretakers, directly from animals, or from water in recreational settings.
How is cryptosporidium removed from swimming pools?
Chlorine is ineffective; the sand filtering necessary for removal seldom is carried out.
How is cryptosporidium diagnosed?
combined Giardia-Cryptosporidium fecal antigen tests
Does O&P detect cryptosporidium?
What does cyclospora cause?
watery, explosive diarrhea that may continue for a month or more and may become chronic with severe weight loss in immunocompromised individuals.
Where is cyclospora found?
Sources include contaminated water and food, especially fragile items of fresh produce that cannot be washed rigorously after harvesting.
How is cyclospora treated?
What is the most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in children?
campylobacter jejuni
What is the drug of choice in Campylobacter jejuni infection?
How does Campylobacter Fetus differ from Campylobacter Jejuni?
More likely to cause systemic disease, requires antibiotic therapy
What are the non-infectious complications of Campylobacter infection?
Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Reiter syndrome, erythema nodosum, reactive arthritis
What is Reiter syndrome?
arthritis, conjunctivitis, urethritis