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37 Cards in this Set

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Define Reye's Syndrome
Reye's Syndrome is an acute disease that sometimes develops when a person is recovering from a viral illness such as influenza or chickenpox. It primarily affects children. Pressure within the brain increases significantly and abnormal fat accumulates in the liver and other organs. The disease progrsses quickly. Death is common. If it is not treated in its earliest stages, irreversivle brain damage can occur.
Residual effects of Reye's Syndrome include:
-eating and sleeping disturbances
-anxiety, depression, and social withdrawal,
-fine or gross motor skills deficits
-problems with attention, concentration, and memory
-speech and language problems
-learning difficulties
Define Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome
Velo-Cardio-FAcial Syndrome is also called Shprintzen syndrome, it is caused by a deletion of the long arm of chromosome 22.
What is velo-cardio-facial syndrome characterized by?
- cleft palate
-heart defects
-short stature, curvature of the spine (scoliosis), tapered fingers
-microcephaly, retronathia (retruded lower jaw), facial assymetry-muscular weakness
articulation deficits related to cleft, glottal stop, substitutions
mild language impairment
high pitched voice, hoarseness, velopharyngeal insufficiency
unilateral vocal fold paresisconductive sesnorineural hearing loss
borderline normal intellect, occassional retardation
Define Pierre Robin Sequence
Pierre Robin Sequence is not a true syndrome since it is a combination of several clinical findings caused by one or many etiologies. It may also be called Pierre Robin syndrome, Robin sequence, or Robin deformation sequence.
Characteristics of Peirre Robin include:
Mandibular hypoplasia (underdevelopment) and glossoptosis (downward displacement of the tongue)

cleft palate of the soft palate. The cleft is typically U-shaped (rather than the more common v-shaped) or in the form of a bifid uvula, which is most clearly seen during phonation of "ah"

resipiration problems resulting from the medical diagnosis of failure to thrive and hypoxic (lack of oxygen) brain damage are reported in some cases

low-set ears, deformed pinnae

conductive hearing loss associated with otitis media, cleft palate, and ear abnormalities

articulation and resonance provlems related to cleft palate

language disorders and learning diasbilities related to hearing loss and post0hypoxix brain damage
Define Fragile X
This syndrome is the second most common cause of a genetically-based mental retardation second to down;s. It occurs when there is a fragile spot on the long arm of the X chromosome (techinically Xq27)
What are the characteristics of Fragile X
-a large head, a prominent forehead, a large jaw, and large ears
-mental retardation
-psychiatric and behavioral problems
-delayed speech and motor development
-jargon, echolalia, preservation, and innappropriate language
-absense of nonverbal communications that typically accompany speech
-voice problems
-articulation disorders
Define FAS
fetal alcohol syndrome is caused by maternal consumption of alcohol and is the leading cause of birth defects and the third leading cause of mental retardation in the United States. The syndrome may result even if the mother is a light "social" drinker. Characteristics vary depending at least in part on the amount if alchohol consumed and the developmental stage of the fetus.
characteristics of FAS
-significant growth retadation
-short palpebral fissures (slits of the eyes), short upturned nose; ears that rotate posteriorly
-maxillary hypolasia, and micrognathia (underdevlopedupper and lower jaw); a thin upper lip and microephaly
congenital heart abnormalities and kidney disorders
poor motor coordination
irritablitiy during infancy and hyperactivity during childhood
abnormalities of the outer ear may be present, but hearing is generally normal
cleft palate and small teeth
mental retardation
articulation disorders
language disabilities, including deficits in syntax, semantics and pragmatics
-fluency disorders
-voice disorders
Define Down Syndrome
Trisomy 21 or Down's

most common and well-known disorder resulting from a chromosomal abnormality

it's name trisomy 21 refers to a triplicate rather than the normal duplicate of chromosome 21, which resultsin a total of 47 rather than 46 chromosomes.

This chromosomal distinction is present in 95% of all patients with Down Syndrome.
Give characteristics of Down's
-generalized hypotonia
-open mouth posture with tongue protusion
-a flat facial profile and brachycephaly (shortened front-to-back diameter of the skull)
-small nose, ears, and chin
-mental retardation or developmental delay
-cardiac malformation in about 40% of cases

unilateral or bilateral hearing loss-- usually mild-mod conductive

delayed speech development, complicated by oral facial abnormalities

articulation disorders

abnormal voice and resonance features, including hypernasality, nasal emission, and breathiness

delayed language and language disorders, particularly syntactic and morphologic problems

delayed speech development, complicated by oral-facial abnormalities
define asperger's syndrome
asperger's syndrome is a developmental, neurobiological disorder that is part of the autism spectrum. It is most common among boys.
Characteristics of asperger's include:
-impaired social skills
-obtuseness, limited interests, and unusual preoccupations
-preference for sameness in routines or rituals
-difficulty with transitions
-speech and lanaguage difficulties, particularly in the areas of pragmatics and prosody
-limited facial expressions apart from anger or misery
-excellent roe memory and musical ability
-difficulty reading nonverbal communication (body language)
-poor awareness of personal bosy space
-clumsy and uncoordinated motor movements
-extreme sensitivy to sounds, tastes, smells, and sights
What does the CELF stand for
clinical evaluation of language fundamentals
what age range can you use the CELF3 for
Does the CELF test receptive or expressive language?
what particular areas of assessment does the CELF test?
semantic, syntactic, phonologic, memory
Describe the 6 criterion for evaluating standardized tests:
1. test should be accompanied by a manual providing info on the rationale behind the test, a detailed description of the development of the test, the specific purposes for which the test is to be used and not used, and qualificationf of the test administrator, and specific instructions for administering, scoring, and interpreting the score.

2. the test manual should also provide info on the construct-, content-, and criterion-related validity. Emphasis should be on construct validity.

3. The test manual should include a section on interjudge, test-retest, and internal consistency types of reliability.

4. Descriptive stats such as means and standard deviations for all groups studied should be included along withtables to use in converting raw scores into standard scores and percentile ranks.

5. size of the normative sample should be included (shouldnt be less than 100)

6. sample should be fully described in terms of race, socio-economic lelvel, geographic residence, IQ, etc.
What is construct validity?
3)construct validity- test's ability to measure a predetermined theoretical construct. A construct is an explanation for behavior based on empirical observation. (example: one construct is that preschool language improves with age. so test scores given to older children should be higher)
What is content validity?
content validity- refers to the completeness of the test. a valid test will sample representaively from the whole spectrum of skills to be tested. (Example: articulation test should test all phonemes)
What is criterion-related validity?
criterion validity- validity that is establised using external criterion. 2 types: concurrent (validity compared to widely accepted standard)and predictive (ability to predict performance such as GRE).
what is internal consistency reliablity?
Also called Split-half reliability. Scores from one half of the test are correlated to scores from the other half. Halves must test the same skill and be the same in style, so you could divide odds and evens.
what is test-retest reliability?
refers to a test's stability over time. It is determined by administering the same test multiple times to the same group and then comparing scores.
what is inter-rater reliability? How about intra-rater reliablity
both types of rater reliabity refer to the degree to which the same person or different people obtain the sae or very similiar results after administering a test.

inter-rater reliability- test results are consistent when more than one person administers the test

intra-rater reliability- test results are consistent when the same person administers the test on more than one occasion.
what is reliability?
reliability means results are replicable. when administered properly, a test gives consistent results on repeated administrations or with different interpreters jedging trhe sae administration.
What is alternate form reliability?
called parallel form reliability. Refers to a test's correlation coefficient with a similiar test. give both test A and test B to the same group of people and compare results.
Define validity?
Test validity means that a test truly measures what it claims to measure.
4 types of validity
1) face validity (test appears to measure what it claims to measure. not a valuable measure alone)
2) content validity
3)construct validity
4) criterion-related validity
Define syndrome.
A group of symptoms and signs related to a disordered function that relate to eachother and they have anatomic, biologic, and physiologic differences related to a feature. They do not indicate a cause. NOt all are genetic; descriptor not a cause; expressed to various degrees
What does DSS stand for?
Developmental sentence scoring
When is the DSS not longer useful?
after age 5 unless severely impaired
# of utterances in a DSS
speech characteristics of DSS
speech has to be intelligible, complete, nonecholalic, and different
What is the CELF trying to test?
core language, receptivem exoressive,
What is DSS trying to test?
a clinical procedure for estimating syntactic development in children's spontaneous speech
explain standard score and scaled score and raw score
a z-score or standard score standardizes the score in reference to the rest of the scores. It tells how many standard deviations the raw score is away from the mean. The z-score is useful because it shows where an individual score lies along the continuum of the bell-shaped curve.

A scaled score is a conversion of a raw score to a common scale that allows for a numerical comparison between students. the scale is used to control slight variations from one version of a test to the next. Scaled scores are particularly useful for comparing test scores over time

A raw score represents the number of points a student received for correctly answering questions on a test or for a content area. Because tests may assign different points to questions and have a different total number of questions, the raw score is only useful in relation to that test or content area.