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45 Cards in this Set

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What is the normal WBC count?
5000-10000 mm3
What is the main job of WBC's?
Fight infection.
What is normal hemoglobin for male and female?
14-18g/dl (MALE)
12-16g/dl (FEMALE)
What is the normal hematocrit percentage for male and female?
42-52% (MALE)
37-47% (FEMALE)
What is the normale platelet count?
150,000-400,000/mm3
What is the normal urine specific gravity?
1.005-1.030
What is the normal urine pH?
4.6-8.0
How does normal urine look?
Amber to yellow and clear.
How much protein should be found in urine?
0.8mg/dl
What should be normal FBS?
70-100mg/dl
What is normal RBC count on male and female?
4.7-6.7 million/ul (MALE)
4.2-5.4 million/ul (FEMALE)
What is a cystoscopy?
endoscopic test for conditions of the urethra, bladder,and lower uterus.Provides direct visualization of these parts. Uses a cystoscope inserted into the bladder.
Which pts would have a cystoscope?
Pts with hematuria, recurrent/resistant UTI's and urinary symptoms.
Who orders diagnostic tests?
Doctors.
What is a colonscopy?
Allows for direct visualization of rectum, colon, and small bowel, reccommended for pt who have a change in bowel, occult blood, or abdominal pain.
Body fluid analysis
Invasive; needs consent. Local anesthetic used.Ex. amniocentesis, bone marrow, paracentesis(abdomen). thoracentesis, and spinal tap.
Electrodiagnostic tests
Measure electrical activity. electrodes detect eletrical activity. impulses transmitted for viewing. Ex. EKG(BRAIN), EEG(SEIZURES & BRAIN DEATH), EMG(MUSCULAR PROBLEM)
ENDOSCOPIC
INSPECTION OF INTERNAL BODY ORGANS/CAVITIES WITH A SCOPE PERMITS BIOPSY/REMOVAL OF TISSUES. INVASIVE. CONSENT NEEDED.EX. ARTHROSCOPY(KNEE), BRONCHOSCOPY, CYSTOSCOPY(BLADDER), COLPOSCOPY(CERVIX/VAGINA)
X-RAY STUDIES
RADIATION PASSES THROUGH TISSUE AND BONE DIFFERENTLY. CONTRAST MATERIAL USED (BARIUM OR IODINE(CHECK TO SEE IF PT IS ALLERGIC TO SHELLFISH.
WHAT ARE EXAMPLES OF X-RAY STUDIES?
ARTERIOGRAM, BARIUK ENEMA, CHEST, AND CARDIAC CATH.
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
CAT SCAN
SPECIAL TYPE OF XRAY. TAKES IMAGES IN VARIOUS PLANES OR SLICES. CONTRAST MATERIAL MAY BE USED.
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
NONINVASIVE. BASED ON HOW HYDROGEN ATOMS BEHAVE IN A MAGNETIC FIELD. IMAGES TRANSLATED TO COMPUTER. RESTRICTED USE WITH METAL IMPLANTS OR PACEMAKERS.
WHEN IS AN OPEN MRI USED?
WHEN PT IS CLAUSTROPHOBIC. PT CAN BE MEDICATED.
NUCLEAR SCANNING PT IS GIVEN RADIOACTIVE ISOTPOES.
DRUGS CONTAINING RADIATION GIVEN TO THE PATIENT. SPECIAL SCANNER DETECTS RADIATION EMISSION. PRODUCES VISUAL IMAGES ON SCREEN. IDENTIFIES ABNORMALITIES.
ULTRASOUND STUDIES
USES HIGH FREQUENCY SOUND WAVES DIRECTED AT INTERNAL BODY STRUCTURES. RECORD IS MADE OF WAVE PULSES AS THEY ARE REFLECTED THROUGH THE TISSUES. EX. ABDIMONAL, OBSTETRICAL.
lABORATORY STUDIES
ANALYSIS OF BLOOD, URINE, STOOL, MUCUS, SPUTUM. DETERMINES HOW MANY SUBSTANCES ARE IN A SPECIMEN. RESULTS BASED ON NORMAL RANGES.
CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY
USES STERILE CONTAINER.PURPOSE IS TO SEE WHAT ORGANISM IS CAUSING PROBLEM. DO THIS BEFORE ANTIBIOTICS ARE GIVEN.
BLOOD SPECIMENS
COLLECTED BY NURSE OR LAB TECHNICIAN. MAY BE NPO-DEPENDS ON THE TEST.cAN BE VENOUS, ARTERIAL(ABG), CAPILLARY(BLOOD SUGAR)
WHAT'S INCLUDED IN A COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT?
WBC, RBC, HCT, HGB, AND PLATELETS.
WBC>10,000
LEUKOCYTOSIS. DENOTES INFECTION, INFLAMMATION.
WHITE BLOOD COUNT <5000mm3
DENOTES LEUKOPENIA, (BONE MARROW)WILL HAVE TO USE REVERSE ISOLATION.
DIFFERENTIAL COUNT
PERCENTAGE OF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF WBC'S. NEUTROPHILS, LYMPHOCYTES, MONOCYTES, EOSINOPHILS, BASOPHILS. NEVER LET MONKEYS EAT BANANAS.
CAN A PT DRIVE AFTER RECEIVING DIFFERENTIAL COUNT?
YES, IT IS NONINVASIVE.
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF RBC'S?
CARRY OXYGEN.
WHAT DOES A RBC COUNT OF 6.5 MILLION/mm3 REPRESENT?
DEHYDRATION
WHAT DOES A RBC COUNT OF 4.1 REPRESENT?
LEUKEMIA AND THE PT IS WELL HYDRATED.
WHAT IS NORMAL HEMATOCRIT FOR A MALE?
42-54%
WHAT IS NORMAL HEMATOCRIT FOR A FEMALE?
37-47%
WHAT DOES THE PERCENTAGE OF RBC'S IN THE BLOOD SHOW?
DETERMINES HOW THICK THE BLOOD IS.
WHAT DOES A PLATELET COUNT OF <20,000 SHOW?
SPONTANEOUS BLEEDING.
WHAT DOES A PLATELETE COUNT OV <100,000 SHOW?
THROMBOCYTOPENIA.
BLOOD CHEMISTRY
OFTEN GROUPED INTO PROFILES OR PANELS. EX.SMA(6,12,19),CHEMISTRY PROFILE.INCLUDES-GLUCOSE, ELECTROLYTES, ENZYMES, AND LIPIDS.
WHEN DOES GLUCOSE SPILL INTO URINE?
WHEN BLOOD GLUCOSE IS >180; EXCEEDS RENAL THRESHOLD.
SHOULD GLUCOSE, PROTEIN, OR BLOOD BE PRESENT IN URINE?
NEGATIVE
SPUTUM SPECIMENS
STERILE CONTAINER FOR C&S AND A CLEAN CONTAINER FOR CYTOLOGY.