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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
WBC are divided in to what 2 groups?
1. Granulocytes-Neutrophils, Basophils & Esosinophils.
2. Agranulocytes-Lymphocytes & Monocytes
Total leukocyte count is differentiated according to what 5 types?
1.Neutoophils-Pyogenic infections.
2.Eosinophils-Allergic disorders & parasitic infestations.
3.Basophils-Parasitic infestations.
4.Lymphocytes-Viral infections.
5.Monocytes-Severe infections, by phagocytosis (p infection or infection has been present for a while.
Eosinophils account for what & of total leukocyte count?
1-4% (allergic disorders & parasitic infestations)
No response to bacteria.
What is Eosinophilia?
Increase in Eosinophils >5%
What are less common causes of eosinophillia?
Addison's dz, Hogkin's dz & lymphoma, Chromic skin dz, Some infections (scarlet fever, chlamydia), SLE, collagen dz, Some GI dz, Malignant tumors.
What is Eosinopenia?
Decrease in eosinophils.
Causes of eosinopenia?
Cushing's syndrome (too much cortisol), drugs, infections w/neutrophilia, stressful situations, burns, postoperative states, lupus, electroshock, eclampsia & labor.
What are basophils?
Usually used to study allergic reaction.
Considered phagocytic & contain heparin, histamine & serotonin.
What % are basophils in total WBC count?
What is basophilia?
Increased basophils.
What are causes of basophilia?
Inflammation, allergy or sinusitis.
(Granulocystic & basophilic leukemia, Hodgkin's dz, Polycythemia vera, Chronic hemolytic anermia, DM, infections including; TB, Varacella & influenza.
What are the causes of Basopenia.
Acute phase of infection, hyperthroidism, stress reactions, prolonged steroid therapy.
What are Monocytes.
Agranulocytes, the largest cells of normal blood, 2nd line of defense against infection, phagocytic-remove injured & dead cells, microorganisms & particles from circulating blood, to be excreted in feces.
What do monocytes escaping from the upper & lower respiratory tract & GI & GU organs do?
Perform scavanger functions & produce interferon (antiviral agent)
What are causes of monocytosis?
Monocytic Leukemia, Multiple Myeloma, Hodgkins's dz, Recovery state of acute infection, Lipid storage dz, Parasitic & Rickettsia dz, TB & Subacute Endocarditis, Chronic Ulcerative Colitis, Sprue, Collagen dzs & Sarcoidosis.
What are causes of a decreased monocyte count?
Prednisone tx, Hair Cell Leukemia, RA, HIV.
What % of WBC do lymphocytes account for?
20-40% of the WBC count.
What are Lymphocytes?
Small motile cells that migrate to areas of inflammation. Source of serum immunoglobulin & cellular immune response.
Where are Lymphocytes made?
In the bone marrow.
What do B-Lymphocytes do & where do the mature?
Control the antigen-antibody response & have memory.
Mature in bone marrow
What are T-Lymphocytes & where do they mature?
T cells include the T4 helper cells, killer cells, cytotic cells, & suppressor T8 cells.
T cells mature in the thymus.
What are causes of Lymphopenia?
Chemotherapy, Radiation, Steroid tx, Aplastic Anemia, Hodgkin's dz, AIDS, Advanced TB, CHF, Renal failure.
What are normal values of Hematocrit (HCT)?
Adult Male - 42-52%
Adult Female - 36-48%
Children - Depends on age
What does a Hematocrit (HCT) determine?
Red blood cell mass.
The results are expressed as the % of packed red cell in a volume of whole blood.
(it is an important measurement in the determination of anemia or polycythemia.