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55 Cards in this Set

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Glucose
Normal: 70-105mg/dL

Critical: <50 or >400
Causes of Deficent Glucose Levels
Insulin Overdose
Addisons
Bacterial Sepsis
Insulinoma
Starvation
Sepsis
Cause of Excessive Glucose
Diabetes Mellitus
Cushing's Disease
Acute Stress Resp
Phyeochromocytoma
Coritcosteroid therapy
BUN
Normal 10-20m mg/dL

Crtical Value: 100 mg/dL
Causes of Excessive BUN
Renal Disease
Urinary obstruction
Dehydration/hypovolemia
Shock
Infection
Diabetes Mellitus
Creatinine
Normal 0.6-1.2 mg/dL

Critical >4 mg/dL
Cause of Low Creatinine
Debilitation
Decreased muscle mass
Cause of High Creatinine
Impaired renal function
DKA
Starvation
Hyperthyroidism
Muscle disease
Urinary obstruction
Reduced renal blood flow
Creatinine Clearance (CC)
M: 107-139
W: 87-107 ml/min
Creatine Clearance Low
Impaired kidney function
Conditions of decreased GFR
Creatine Clearance High
Exercise
Pregnancy
High cardiac output syndromes
Uric Acid
Normal: M: 4-.5 mg/dl
W: 2.7-7.3

Critical: >12 mg/dl
Excessive Uric Acid
Gout
Chronic renal disease
Drugs
Increased cell turnover
Malignancy
Renal stones
Alcoholism
Total protein
Normal: 6.4-8.3 g/dL
Low Protein Levels
Severe liver disease
Malabsorption
Nephrotic syndrome
Diarrhea
High Protein Levels
Hemoconcentration
Rheumatoid arthritis/collagen diseases
Lupus
Chronic infections
Malignant tumors
Albumin
Normal: 3.5-5.0 g/dL
Low Albumin
Severe liver disease
Malabsorption
Diarrhea
Severe burns
Starvation
Pregnancy
Over hydration
High Albumin
Dehydration
Globulin
Normal: 2.3-3.4 g/dL
Creatine Phosphokinase
(CPK)
M: 55-170 U/l
W: 30-135
Excessive CPK
Diseases/injury effecting the heart muscle, skeletal muscle, and brain
Creatine kinase- MB (CK-MB)
Acute MI
Cardiac aneurysm surgery
Cardiac defibrillation
Myocarditis
Ventricular arrhythmias
Cardiac ischemia
CPK-BB

is caused by
Disease affecting CNS
Adenocarcinoma
Pulmonary infarction
CPK-MM

caused by
Rhabdomyolysis
Muscular dystrophy
Myositis
IM injections
Crush injuries
Delirium tremens
Chronic alcoholism
Acute intoxication
Shock
Malignany hyperthermi
Myoglobin
M: 30-90 ng/dl
W: <50 ng/dl
Excessive Myoglobin
MI
Myositis
Malignant hyperthermia
Muscular Dystrophy
Rhadomyolysis
Cardiac Troponin T
Normal: <0.2 ng/ml
High Cardiac Troponin
MI
Myocarditis
Myocardial contusion
Myocardial toxicity
Cardiac transplant
Troponin I
<0.03 ng/ml
High Troponin I
MI
Myocarditis
Myocardial contusion
Myocardial toxicity
Cardiac transplant
Total Bilirubin
Normal:0.3-1.0 mg/dl

Critical:Adult: >12 mg/dl
Newborn: >15 mg/dl
Conjugated Bilirubin
Normal:0.1-0.3 mg/dl
High conjugated Bilirubin
Gall stones
Extrahepatic duct
Liver metastases
Unconjugated Bilirubin
Normal:0.2-0.8 mg/dl
High levels of Unconjugated Bilirubin
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Hemolytic anemia
Hepatitis
Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia
Transfusion reaction
AST
Normal:0-35 units/L
High AST
Cardiac disease
Liver disease
Skeletal muscle disease
Acute pancreatitis
Statins
Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency
Wilson’s disease
ALT
Normal:4-36 units/L
High ALT
Hepatocellular disease
Cirrhosis
Obstructive jaundice/biliary obstruction
Hepatitis
Cholestasis
Pancreatitis
Hepatotoxic drugs
Mono
ALP
Normal: 30-120 units/L
High ALP caused by
Liver disease
Bone
Normal pregnancy
Hyperparathyroidism
Sarcoidosis
Multiple myeloma ther.
Cholestatic disease
Cancer
Sarcoisdosis
TB
LDH
100-190 units/L
Excessive LDH
Acute MI
Acute leukemia
Hepatic disease
Skeletal muscle disease
Cancer
Red blood cell disease
Renal parenchymal dis.
Pancreatitis
GGT
8-38 units/L
High GGT caused by
Cholecystitis
Cancer metastatic to liver
Cirrhosis
Acute pancreatitis
Alcoholism
Hepatitis
Cancer of the pancreas
High levels of AST/ALT caused by
Viral hepatitis
Autoimmune hepatitis
Hemochromatosis
Amylase (normal)
25-125 units/L
High levels of Amylase
Acute pancreatitis
Perforated peptic ulcer
Acute cholecystitis
Intestinal obstruction
Abdominal trauma
Mumps
Lipase (normal)
10-140 units/L
High levels of Lipase caused by
Acute pancreatitis
Chronic relapsing pancreatitis
Obstruction of pancreatic duct
Pancreatic cancer
Acute cholecystitis
Cholangitis
Cirrhosis
Severe renal disease
High intestinal obstruction
PSA
<ng/ml

Caused by

Prostate cancer
Benign prostatic hypertrophy
Prostatitis
Na
Normal: 135-145 mmol/L

Critical: <120
>160
Low levels of Na
Decreased sodium intake
Addison’s disease
Dairrhea
Vomiting
Nasogastric aspiration
Diuretics
Chronic renal insufficiency
Excess oral water intake
Excess IV fluids
CHF
SIADH
High levels of Na
Excess dietary intake
Primary aldosterone
Cushing’s disease
Excessive sweating
Extensive burns
Diabetes insipidus