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8 Cards in this Set

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Type I Diabetes Mellitus
frequency in pop: .5%
Geo: N Europe, Third world
Ethnicity: less important
onset age: young, early teens
weight: normal to decreased
Fam Hx: uncommon
Insulin: required for survival
Ketosis: common
Abs: 90%, Islet cell abs, Glutamate decarboxlase abs, Insulin autoabs
Insulin, C-peptide: none
HLA: DR 3/4 DQ 2/8
Microvascular comp: Up to 40%
Macrovascular comp: some risk
Type II Diabetes Mellitus
frequency in pop: 5%
Geo: western 3rd W. low rural
Ethnicity: Native Amer, Island
onset age: older
weight: increased 80% obese
Fam Hx: Common
Insulin: often not nessary
Ketosis: rare
Abs: no
Insulin, C-peptide: elevated
HLA: none
Microvascular comp: 5%
Macrovascular comp: increased risk
DDx Insulin Deficient
pancreatectomy
pancreatitis
alchol
hemochromotosis
cystic fibrosis
MODY
Type I diabeties, autoimmune, idiopathic.
Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY)
early onset
autosomal dominance
partial insulin deficiency
glucokinase and b-cell Tfactors
Short Term Complications of Type I Diabetes
Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, weakness/fatigue,

blurred vision, increased infections, Hyperosmolarity
DKA
Long Term Complications of Type I Diabetes
Diabetic retinopathy
Diabetic Nephropathy Necrosis, acidosis, proteinuria
Peripheral neuropathys, autominc dysfuction
MI, Cardiomyopathy
Ischemic ulcers, amputations
Charcot joint
DKA: Clinical Features
Kussmauls breathing why?
volume loss, hyperglycmia
epi reliease, makes it worse
depressed levels of conciousness
hypotension, tachycardia, fruiyoder on breathe
hihg glucose, reduced bicarb

TX: insulin replacement, restoration of water and electrolyte imbalance
steps to reduce complications of TYPE I Diabetes
1. prevent short/long term comp.
2. insulin injections, pumps
3. Monitering, Glucose, Glycosylated Hemoglobin HbA1C