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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Target HTN and Cholesterol goal for DM patients
HTN: 130/80 mmHg
Cholesterol: LDL < 100 mg/dl
HDL > 45 mg.dl (men), > 55 mg/dl (women)
When NPH and Regular are mixed together, how long is it potent for?
21 days
What are some factors that can influence BG Control?
Diet
Exercise
Stress
PK: Factors that can affect renal elimination
Gastroparesis
Hormonal changes: pregnancy
Novolog is
Aspart
Humalog is
Lispro
Drugs that decrease BG levels are
Alcohol
Insulin
Sulfonylureas
Biguanides
Salicylates
Anabolic Steroids
Common side effects of Sulfonylureas
SIADH
Headache
Confusion/Dizziness
SJS/ Photosensitivity
Weight Gain
Hypoglycemia
Which Sulfonylurea has the disulfiram rxn? (Give brand and generic)
Chlorpropamide (Diabinese)
Which sulfonylurea needs to be taken on an empty stomach? (Give brand and generic)
Glipizide (Glucotrol)
Glimiperide
Amaryl
MOA of Sulfonylureas
Sulfonylureas increase endogenous insulin secretion
Tolbutamide
Orinase
Chlorpropramide
Diabinese
Acetohexamide
Dymelor
Tolazimide
Tolinase
Max daily dose of Metformin
2500 mg
Side Effects of Biguanides
GI upset (diarrhea)
Lactic Acidosis
Advantages of Metformin vs. other antidiabetic medications
Does not cause weight gain
Helps improve lipids
Does not cause hypoglycemia
MOA of Biguanides
1) inhibits glucose secretion from the liver
2) Helps with the peripheral muscle uptake of glucose
Common side effects of Alpha glucosidase inhibitors
GI flatulence
Bloating
Abdominal bleeding
MOA of Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
It helps block the enzymes that digest starch in the small intestines
What is the Samogyi Phenomenon?
Caused by having too much insulin in the blood during the night. This can happen to people who take long-acting insulins and it can also happen if you didn't eat a snack before bed. The blood sugar drops while you are sleeping and your body releases hormones to counteract the drop. Resulting in higher AM values
What is the Damn Phenomenon?
The dawn phenomenon happens because during the night, hormones are released that trigger the liver to put out glucose. If there is not enough insulin in the body to counteract this, then blood glucose levels rise during the night, resulting in a high reading in the morning.
What drugs are under the class of TZDs?
Pioglitazone (Actos)
Rosigltazone (Avandia)
What are the class side effects of TZDs?
Edema, wt. gain, and increases in LDL and LFTs.
What are the class side effects of Meglitinides?
Hypoglycemia (do not take it meal is skipped)
MOA of Meglitinides
Help inhibit secretion of insulin from the beta cells.
MOA of TZDs?
Helps with hepatic glucose production as well as decreases insulin resistance at the muscles