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53 Cards in this Set

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What is the main defnition of diabetes?
Glucose rich urine
What are the symptoms of diabetes?
Hyperglycemia
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Ketonuria
Weight Loss
What is the defect in Type 1?
Destruction of pancreatic beta cells by immune system
What is the defect in Type 2?
Combination of Insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion
How does the cell become resistant to insulin?
Reduced binding of insulin
Reduced receptors
Reduced receptor affinity
Ketoacidosis occurs when (hyperglycemia/hypoglycemia) is allowed to persist.
Hyperglycemia
Hyperglycemia causes ____ and ___ injury.
Macrovascular
Microvascular
What are common conditions found with diabetes?
CVD
Retinopathy
Nephropathy
Sensory and Motor Neuropathy
Gastroparesis
Amputation
ED
What is the diabetes that is found only during pregnancy?
Gestational diabetes
What are the three tests for diabetes?
Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG)
Casual Plasma Glucose
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
FPG is taken __ hours after the last ____.
8
meal
What are treatments for Type 1 diabetes?
Controlling carbohydrate intake
Insulin Replacement
What are the treatments for Type 2?
Glycemic Control with Diet and Exercise
Drug Therapy
What dose the Glycated Hemoglobin test measure?
Average Glucose Levels over last 2-3 months
With prolonged levels of ____ levels of HbA1c _____.
hyperglycemia
increase
Where is insulin made?
Beta cell of the pancreas
Insulin promotes (release/conservation) of energy stores.
Conservation
Insulin deficiency puts the body in a (anabolic/catabolic)
Catabolic
What are the three short duration rapid acting insulins?
Insulin lispro
Insulin Aspart
Insulin Glulisine
What are the intermediate duration insulins?
NPH
Insulin detemir
What is the long lasting insulin?
Insulin glargine
NPH has a (immediate/delayed) onset of action and a (shorter/longer) duration of action.
delayed
longer
Insulin detemir is slow onset with a dose-dependant duration of action.
T or F
True
All insulins are clear and colorless solutions.
T or F
False
NPH is the only exception
What insulin is appropriate for mixing with short acting insulin?
NPH
What the the delivery device of Exubera?
Inhalation
All vials of insulin must be refrigerated.
T or F
False
Unopened vials should be refrigerated while a vial in use can be kept at room temperature for a month
What are the symptoms of hypoglycemia?
Tachycardia
Palpitations
Sweating
Nervousness
What is the feature of Conventional Therapy?
Regular insulin with NPH twice daily before morning and evening meals
What is the feature of Intensive Conventional Therapy?
Insulin Glargine in evening with regular insulin before each meal
Dose of insulin are (the same/adjusted) in ICT to the meals caloric content.
adjusted
What is the feature of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion?
Portable infusion pump
What are the drug interactions of insulin?
Agents that lower or raise blood sugar
Beta Blockers
How does sulfonylureas work?
promote release of insulin
____ is the prototype of the sulfonylureas.
Tolbutamide
What is Tolbutamide?
Sulfonylurea
What is the use of Tolbutamide?
Type 2
What are the drug interactions of Tolbutamide?
Alcohol
Beta Blockers
Hypoglycemic agents
What do Meglitinides do?
Stimulate release of insulin
What are the two meglitinide drugs?
Repaglinide
Nateglinide
What family of drugs is metformin part of?
Biguanides
What does metformin do?
Decreases production of glucose in liver
Enhances glucose uptake
What are the uses of metformin?
Prevention of Type 2
Type 2
What the the adverse affects of metformin?
Lactic Acidosis
What are the drug interactions with metaformin?
Alcohol
What do thiazolidinediones do?
Decrease insulin resistance
What are the two thiazolidinediones available?
Rosiglitazone
Pioglitazone
How do thiazolidinediones work?
Activate PPAR-gamma
Turn on insulin-responsive genes
What do Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors do?
Delay absorption of carbohydrates
What are the two Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors?
Acarbose
Miglitol
What are the adverse effects of Acarbose?
GI effects
How does Pramlintide work?
Reduce postpradial levels of glucose
Suppress glucagon secretion
What is the treatment for ketoacidosis?
Insulin replacement
Bicarbonate for acidosis