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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the laboratory criteria for Diagnosing diabetes mellitus in adults
FBS >125 on 2 occations or random BS >200 with characteristic sxs
Define type 1 DM
insulin deficient. typically abrupt onset, mostly chinldren and teens, possibly autoimmune, islet autoantibodies frequent
Define type 2 DM
insulin resistant. Abn B-cell response. Typically adult onset, fam hx, obese
What other diseases are often associated with type 2 DM
HTN, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis
What DM is associated with polyuria and thirst
What DM is associated with weakness or fatigue
What DM is associated with polyphagia and weight loss?
Type 1
What DM is associated with recurrent blurred vision
What Dm is associated with vulvovaginitis or pruritus
What DM is associated with peripheral neuropathy
What DM is associated with nocturnal enuresis
Type 1
What DM is often asymptomatic
Type 2
Briefly describe the role that autoimmunity plays in the causation of DM
Most have antibodies to islets measureable with serum testing, vigorous response against altered pancreatic B cell
Briefly describe the genetic inheritance in the roll of causation of DM
certain HLAs are strongly associated w/type 1. Tissue insensitivity to insulin noted in DM2, including genetic factor aggrevated by diet, weight, etc.
Briefly describe the role of insulin resistance in the causation of DM
insulin antibodies bind to insulin and contribute to resistance.
What are 2 major consequences of uncontrolled DM
diabetic ketoacidosis DKA, and nonketotic hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar coma
When might you see diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
type 1, or resulting from increased insulin requirement during infection, trauma, MI, or surgery.
What might cause nonketotic hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar coma
severe hyperglycemia in absence of significant ketosis w/hyperosmolarity and dehydration. Occurs in mild or occult DM, pt's at lease middle-age to elderly
What are the symptoms of DKA
polyuria, polydipsia, fatigue, NV, mental stupor, rapid deep breathing, fruity breath, phyotension, tachycardia, abd px
What are symptoms of hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar state / coma
over days or weeks, weakness, polyuria, polydipsia, dehydration, inappropriate lack of thirst, nausea, lethargy, confusion, conculsions and deep coma without Kussmaul respirations
Describe symptoms of hypoglycemia
mental confusion, bizarre behavior, tachycardia, palpitations, sweating, tremulousness, coma
What are some of the most common causes of hypoglycemia
insulin without meals or excess exercise, hypopituitarism, Addison's disease, myxedema
What are major chronic complications of DM
HTN, renal failure, blindness, neuropathy, amputations, MI, CVA
What DM characteristic findings may occur in the eyes
diabetic cataracts, retinopathy, glaucoma
What DM characteristic findings may occur in the kidneys
diabetic nephropathy, micro9albuminuria
What DM characteristic findings may occur in nerve tissue
neuropathy, distal symmetric polyneuropathy, isolated peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, erectile dysfunction
What DM characteristic findings may occur in the heart
heart disease, peripheral vascular disease
What DM characteristic findings may occur in the skin and mucous memberane complications
gangrene of the feet, necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum
What should be included in the treatment plan for DM pt's
diet, weight reduction, exercise, medications (insulin / oral agents), self-monitoring of BS, glycosylated hemoglobin assay (HBA1c)
How should gestational DM be managed
Insulin (oral agents contraindicated), weight reduction not advised, self monitoring, diet, exercise