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68 Cards in this Set

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Hyperinsulinemia
Excessive blood insulin levels
Hypoglycemia
Low blood sugar levels
Hyperglycemia
High blood sugar levels
Honeymoon phase
Temporary remission in Type I diabetes when beta cells produce insulin again. May last up to one year. May need little to no insulin. May need to be monitored.
Glucagon
Maintains blood gluose levels. Secreted from alpha cells
Gastroparesis
Paralysis of the stomach cased by damage to the nerves in the autonomic nervous system.
Somatostatin
Secreted from delta cells in the pancrease, gut & brain. Inhibits the release & action of glucogen & insulin from the pancreas.
Euglycemia
A normal concentration of glucose in the blood
Hyperinsulinemia
Excessive blood insulin levels
Hypoglycemia
Low blood sugar levels
Hyperglycemia
High blood sugar levels
Honeymoon phase
Temporary remission in Type I diabetes when beta cells produce insulin again. May last up to one year. May need little to no insulin. May need to be monitored.
Glucagon
Maintains blood gluose levels. Secreted from alpha cells
Glycogenesis
The formation of glycogen from glucose
Gastroparesis
Paralysis of the stomach cased by damage to the nerves in the autonomic nervous system.
Somatostatin
Secreted from delta cells in the pancrease, gut & brain. Inhibits the release & action of glucogen & insulin from the pancreas.
Polydipsia
Excessive thirst
Polyphagia
Excessive hunger
Glycogenolysis
The conversion of glycogen to glucose
Ketones
A waste product of fat metabolism
Neuropathy
Damage to the nerves from diabetes. The leading cause of foot ulcers, wounds & amputations.
Retinopathy
Damage to the reina from diabetes. The leading cause of blindness.
Somogyi Effect (Rebound Hypoglycemia)
A swing to high levels of glucose from low levels. Usually occurs during the morning from release of stress hormones, epinephrine, cortisol & glycogen.
Nephropathy
Damage to the kidneys from diabetes. The leading cause of kidney failure
Dawn Phenomenon
A nighttime release of growth hormone that causes blood glycose elevations at about 5-6 am. Treated by providing an intermediate acting dose at 10 pm
Sulfonylureas
Cause pancreas to make more insulin
Biguanides
Reduces the amount of flucophage glucose that is made by the liver & helps body better use insulin.
Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors
helps keep blood sugar in target cell range after a meal
Kussmaul Respiration's
Increased rate & depth in an attempt to excrete more carbon dioxide & acid.
Macrovascular Disease
Cornoary dises, cerebrovascular problems & peripheral vascular disease.
Microvascular Disease
Complications in retina of eye, nephron of kidney & neurons of the body
DKA - Uncontrolled Hyperglycemia
Over time it creates a buildup in the blood of acidic waste products called ketones.
FBS
Finger Blood Glucose
SMBG
Self monitored blood glucose. Checking your level frequently
FPG
Fasting Plasma Glucose - fasting before having blood drawn
ESRD
End Stage Renal Disease
HbA1c - Glycosylated Hemoglobin
A test that measures how high your BS has been over the last 90 days - the lifespan of the RBC's.
OGTT
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test - drawing blood for a fasting plasma blood glucose test, drink sweet drink, then draw again 2 hrs later to check blood glucose level.
Where is Glucagin produced?
In the pancreas
What is Diabetes?
A group of disorders categorized by a glucose intolerance. A disease that is caused by an imbalnace between insulin supply & demand. Person has insufficient or ineffective insulin.
What are symptoms of Hyperglycemia?
Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia
Metabolic Acidosis
When ketones accumulate in the blood when glucose isn't available
Hemoconcentration
Increase of blood concentration
Hypovolemia
Decrease in blood volume
Hyperviscosity
Thick concentrated blood
Hypoperfusion
Decrease in circulation
Hypoxia
Not enough )2 to cells. These cells are unable to metabolize cells efficiently, Kreb cycle is blockes & you have lactic acid build up which sets stage for more acidosis.
Clinical manifestations as disease progresses:
slow wound healing, parasthesias (unusual sensations in extremities), thrush, vaginal infections, peripheral vascular disease which effects primarily the feet, blurry vision, frequent UTI's
What does insulin do?
It lowers blood glucose by facilitating the uptake & utilization of muscles & fat cells. It decreases the release of glucose from liver.
Tissue Hypertrophy (lipohypertrophy)
Is a thickening of SQ tissue, soft & lumpy and is prevented by rotating injection sites.
Adrenergic S/S
weak, palpitations & sweating
How do you manage Diabetes?
1. frequent self monitoring of glucose.
2. check for ketones & HGBA1c.
3. carefull meal planning
4. exercise - walking
5. insulin regimine - onset, peak, duration
6. check eyesight
3 Complications of Diabetes
1. Hypoglycemic Reaction
2. Diabetic Ketoacidosis
3. HHNKS - Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketonic syndrome
HHNS - Hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome
Associated with insulin deficiency, profound dehydration, adn the absence of ketosis
Hypoglycemia
Occurs when too much insulin or too little glucose is present.
Albuminuria
The presence of albumin in the urine
Hyperinsulinemia
Excessive blood insulin levels
Hyperlipidemia
Excessive blood levels of cholesterol & other fats.
Microalbuminuria
Presence of very small amounts of albumin in the urine.
Proteinuria
Protein in the urine
Type 1 Diabetes
Is an autoimmune disorder in which beta-cell destruction in the pancreas occurs.
Type 2 Diabetes
The presence of antibodies in the bloodClients with type 2 have a reduction in the ability of most cells to respond to insulin (insulin resistance)
What ethnic groups have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes?
African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans.
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
The most sensitive test for the diagnosis of diabetes, although it is not routinely used, except in diagnosis of gestational diabetes.
What is the normal range for adults for a Fasting Blood glucose test?
< 110 mg/dl (6.1 mmol/L)

Levels > 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) obtained on at least two occasions are diagnostic of diabetes, even in older adults.
What is the normal range for adults for a Glucose Tolerance Test (2-hour post load result)
< 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l)
Levels >140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L0 and < 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) indicate impared glucose tolerance.

Levels > 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/L) indicate provisional diagnosis of diabetes.
What is the normal range for adults for a Glycosylated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c test)
4% - 6%.

Levels over 8% indicate poor diabetic control with need for adherence to regimen or changes in therapy.
Symptoms of Hypoglycemia
Headache
confusion
slurred speech
behavior changes
coma
warm
weak
faint
dizzy
blurred vision