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67 Cards in this Set

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What is the structural, functional and biological unit of every living organism?
A cell
What is the PH Scale?
A scale from 0 to 14 reflecting the concentration of hydrogen ions
What numbers are acidic on the PH scale?
0-6
What number is neutral on the PH scale?
7
What numbers are basic on the PH scale?
8-14
What is the building block of protein?
Amino Acids
How can you speed up an enzyme reaction?
By using a catalyst
what are the two parts to cell theory?
All cells are made from pre-existing cells and all cells are the basic unit of structure and function.
___ is made of microtubules and microfilaments. Provides internal support network for organelles in the cytoplasm.
cytoskeleton
___ A type of cytoskeleton. Made of fine filaments
microfilament
Made of DNA and protein, cite of cellular respiration
Mitochondria
Transports lipids. Membrane sacs that are connected
Smooth ER
converts Sun energy into stored chemical energy, site of photosynthesis, contains cholorophyll
chloroplast
Found in the nucleus, contains hereditary information
chromosomes
contains Chromosomes, control center of the cell
nucleus
Space between nucleus and the cell membrane
cytoplasm
Controls movement of materials in and out of cells. Made of phospholipids
Cell Membrane
Packages Molecules, The post office of the cell
Golgi Body
One celled organisms
Unicellular
A type of cytoskeleton, made of hollow tubules
microtubules
Transports proteins, studded with ribosomes, membrane sacks that are connected to form a network
Rough ER
All cells are made of pre-existing cells, All cells are the basic unit of structure and function
Cell Theory
A type of cell with NO membrance enclosed organelles, just has a cell membrane and DNA
prokaryotes
Involved in cell division, found only in animal cells
Centrioles
A type of cell with membrane enclosed organelles
Eukaryote
Site of intracellular digestion, formed by budding from Golgi apparatus
Lysosome
Stores water, takes up more space in plant cells
Vacuole
The powerhouse of the cell, makes ATP by breaking down glucose
Mitochondria
Many celled organisms
multicellular
The membrane around the nucleus, has pores
nuclear envelope
Explain the 3 differences between the plant and animal cell anatomy
Animal cells have Lysosomes and centrioles, while plant cells have vacuoles
What are the units of hereditary information that control the basic functions of the cell?
genes
When molecules move from where there is more to where there is less
diffusion
The diffusion of water through a membrane
osmosis
The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins
Active Transport
A process whereby cells absorb material from the outside by engulfing it with their cell membrane
Endocytosis
When molecules diffuse across a membrane with the help of transport proteins
Facilitated diffusion
What is probability?
The chance that any given event will occur
What is a hybrid?
Having different alleles for a given trait, one inherited from each parent; heterozygous
A trait that is visible in a heterozygous organism
dominant
One of two or more possible forms of a gene, each affecting the hereditary trait somehow differently
allele
The stage in mitosis in which chromosomes on the spindle seperate and are pulled toward opposite ends of the cell
Anaphase
A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining the sex
autosome
A chemical that promotes a reaction between other chemicals and may take part in the reaction but emerges in its original form
catalyst
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a dividing cell, composed of M, G1, S, and G2 phases
Cell cycle
A nonliving covering around the plasma membrane of certain cells
cell wall
The green pigments of plants and many microorganisms, converts light energy to chemical energy
chlorophyll
A condition in which both alleles in a heterozygous organism are expressed
codominance
A difference in the concentration of certain molecules over a distance
Concentration Gradient
During prophase 1 of meiosis, the breakage and exchange of corresponding segments of chromosome pairs at one or more sites along their length, resulting in genetic re-combination
crossing-over
The gelatin like portion of the cytoplasm that bathes the organelles of the cell
cytosol
The process of taking molecules apart; heat and chemicals are the cheif agents
Decomposition
A sugar used in the structure of DNA
Deoxyribose
The process in which electrons are transferred from one carrier molecule to another in photosynthesis and in cellular respiration
Electron Transport system
A protein, or part-protein molecule made by an organism and used as a catalyst in a specific biochemical reaction
enzyme
A cell containing only one member (n) of each chromosome pair characteristic of a species
haploid
The genetic makeup of an organism
genotype
A term used to describe an allele or trait that is masked by a dominant allele or trait.
recessive
What is mRNA?
messenger RNA, the template for RNA synthesis
What is tRNA?
Transfer RNA, the "adapter" molecule that converts nucleic sequences to protein sequences
What is rRNA?
Ribosomal RNA, The structural molecule of RNA
The union of an egg nucleus and a sperm nucleus
fertilization
Reproduction involving the contribution of genetic material from two parents
sexual reproduction
The synthesis phae of the cell cycle during which DNA is replicated
S phase
The final stage in mitosis, two new cell nuceli are completed as nuclear envelopes form around the two clusters of chromosomes at opposite ends of the cell, and the cell itself divides
telophase
A small, intracellular membrane-enclosed sac in which various substances are transported or stored
Vesicle
The diploid product of the union of haploid gametes in conception
zygote