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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
image of woman
weak, passive and dependent. legitimate victims.
What are the crimes "against society"?
sexual acts
dating game
dating is a part of the interaction process for young american males and females, it leads to more or less permanent arrangements. frequently leads to rape because the expectations of partners are unclear and unmet.
what is the largest group of criminals?
the ones who are not detected or caught.
name the three justifications of rape:
1. she needed to be raped
2. she wanted to be raped
3. she deserves to be raped
Define forcible rape. Contrast the UCR & the NCVS definitions.
UCR defines rape as: carnal knowledge of a female forcible & against her will.

NCVS defines rape as: carnal knowledge through the use of force or threat of force.

the major difference between the UCR and the NCVS definitions is the sex of the victim. The UCR recognizes that only females get raped, while the NCVS notes that both women and men can be rape victims.
How much rape is reported?
about half of rapes are reported to police
How many Americans were "very fearful" or "somewhat fearful" of being a victim of violent crime in the 1990's?
list the reasons some cases of rape are "unfounded".
1. delay in reporting

2. refusal to take exam

3. women were drinking

4. more you know aggressor,less likely to go to court

5. no evidence of weapon

6. women too traumatized to go to court.
what is the "feminist theory" of rape?
1. the primary & ultimate factor behind rape is the social tradition of male domination in important sociopolitical and economic activities.

2. because women are largely excluded from power positions in important sociopolitical and economic activities, they are regarded as being unequal to men in interpersonal relationships and at the extreme, they are viewed and view themselves as male property.

3. rape is a male response to the unequal social status of females and to the interpretation of this status.
Define the UCR - what crimes are listed?

Crimes listed are : murder, aggravated assault, rape, robbery, burglary, larceny, auto-theft and arson.
How many rapes are "unfounded"?
Statistics on all crime?

How much crime is reported?
36% of all crime is reported.

50% of burglaries,
28% of rapes,
61% of robberies

are reported
What are some reasons women do not report rapes?
they consider rape to be a private matter they want to resolve on their own.

they fear reprisal by offender, or his friends or family.

they fear the police would be inefficient, ineffective or insensitive.
What is the "revised" UCR?
NIBRS is the revised UCR.

Discuss the 5 facts associated with rape.
1. the rape rate is generally declining.

2. rape is disproportionately high among young, lower-status nonwhites.

3. the majority of rapes and attempted rapes are committed by nonstrangers.

4. most rapes are planned, not spontaneous offenses

5. alcohol is associated with a large proportion of reported rapes.
what are the two reasons child abuse has quickly become a visible, serious issue?
1. there has been a growing awareness that victims were frequently victimized a second time by an uncaring criminal justice system

2. our distress over child abuse and neglect is magnified by the understanding that this violence repeats itself.
child abuse
general term that refers to both actual physical abuse and neglect
List street crimes:
aggravated assault
how do violence and sex play into rape?
Aggressiveness, if not open violence, by males toward females is a pervasive theme and practice in american society. it is traditional that men initiate sexual activity. males are known to misinterpret situations to have sexual meanings.
Crimes against persons:
aggravated assault
name the three social factors relevant to why so many women face instances of unwanted sexual aggressiveness from men?
the image of men
the image of woman
dating game
Crimes against property:
image of men
strength, activity and independence, man is initiator of sexual behavior and his degree of success indicates how much of a man he is.
What are white collar crimes?
crimes committed in the workplace.
Examples of white collar crimes?
corporate crimes
political crimes
what are the nine general categories of child abuse and neglect, in declining order of seriousness?
1. physical abuse
2. sexual abuse
3. fostering delinquency
4. supervision
5. emotional mistreatment
6. drug/alcohol
7. failure to provide
8. educational neglect
9. parental sexual mores
what are the nine general categories of child abuse and neglect, in declining order of seriousness?
1. physical abuse
2. sexual abuse
3. fostering delinquency
4. supervision
5. emotional mistreatment
6. drug/alcohol
7. failure to provide
8. educational neglect
9. parental sexual mores
what are the nine general categories of child abuse and neglect, in declining order of seriousness?
1. physical abuse
2. sexual abuse
3. fostering delinquency
4. supervision
5. emotional mistreatment
6. drug/alcohol
7. failure to provide
8. educational neglect
9. parental sexual mores
why do spouses abuse one another?
violence against spouses stems from the same conditions that are responsible for child abuse, namely, stress and learning patterns supporting violence.
who discovered the "battered child syndrome"?
pediatric radiologists- physicians specializing in children's x-rays.
three factors that forestalled earlier medical recognition: (why doctors did not report child abuse)
1. may physicians were unwilling to believe that parents would abuse their children

2. physicians were concerned about violating the confidentiality of the physician-patient relationship.

3.physicians were reluctant about becoming involved in the legal process.
how is child abuse a social construction?
all cases that make up the data on incidence, all the explanatory analyses, and all the prevention and treatment models are influenced by the social process by which individuals and groups are labeled and designated as deviants. in other words, there is no objective behavior we can automatically recognize as child abuse.
how many children are abused?
between 200,000 and 500,000 each year.
who are the child abusers?
females who are single parents that work outside the home

parents who are socially isolated from neighbors and community

families with four to seven children

families with children who were born premature, handicapped or mentally retarded.

parents with unrealistic expectations about their children's capabilities.

parents who are inconsistent in disciplining children

parents who themselves were abused as children

lower income families

families under stress- emotional, physical or economic
discuss stress, power and culture and how these variables play into the definition of "abuser".
categories of stress: (1) stress between parents; (2) structural stress; (3) child-produced stress

the more stress events experienced by a family, the greater the likelihood that a parent would be abusive toward a child

power- parents have nearly absolute authority over their children, when children challenge this parental authority, resolution of the conflict takes place within the family
subculture of interpersonal violence, a concept denoting that within some segments of society the quick resort to serious violence is tolerated, if not expected, in certain situations.
discuss sexual abuse of children. who are the abusers?
sexual abuse is more common among girls, and is usually committed by a family member over 18 years and older.
define molestation.
molestations involve genital display, petting, or oral contacts.
four major personality groups
1. SYMBIOTIC PERSONALITIES: the offender relies heavily on the child to supply the affection and warmth he lacks from other sources.
A. INTROVERT - has few social contacts outside the family
B. RATIONALIZER - carries the notion of love for his children to extremes.
C. TYRANT - sees his wife and children as being in debt to him because he is a man and the breadwinner.
D. ALCOHOLIC - feels very dependent on his family and uses alcohol as a lubricant for getting close to them.

2. PSYCHOPATHIC PERSONALITIES: offenders seeking stimulation, novelty and excitement. professes neither love nor guilt.

3. PEDOPHILIAC PERSONALITIES: persons who have sexual cravings for children whether related to them or not.

4. PSYCHOTIC PERSONALITIES: small number of offenders suffer from brain damage, resulting in hallucinations and delusions promoting incestuous behavior

5. SUBCULTURAL: isolated families where traditionally the oldest daughter is expected to assume her mother's role, both in the kitchen and the bed
two factors linked to "traumatic reaction"
force and an age discrepancy greater than 5 years between offender and child.
NAMBLA- north american man-boy love association
founded in 1979, promotes homosexual contacts with children'
what problem exists in the adult-child relationship?
the ability to consent becomes questionable when the participants in a sexual relationship are unequal. unless we understand that children lack the capacity to resist adult pressure, granting a child the so-called "right" to freely choose an adult sex partner is much like liberating the chicken from its coop only to be devoured by the fox.
define murder
the willful killing of one human being by another.
define aggravated assault
an unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury
discuss coroners and their relationship to "defining" murder.
coroners may be appointed or elected officials whose qualifications might depend on his or her ability to remove a body, they may receive assistance from the local hospital pathologist and most likely has no training in forensic pathology. since they are not fully trained, many homicides are ruled as accidents, suicides or deaths from natural causes.
contrast the debate over guns. concrete examples and statistics.
over 60% of homicide victims were shot to death. handguns alone account for over half of the homicides. over half of americans own no firearms but 43% do and 24% of them own handguns. there are 250 million weapons in civilian hands nationwide. there is little doubt that when a gun is present in a violent confrontation, the risk of death increases. 31 states allow private citizens to carry concealed weapons and have on average a 24% lower violent crime rate, a 19% lower murder rate and a 39% lower robbery rate than states that forbid concealed weapons.
NRA arguments opposing gun control bills generally stress three points:
1. gun control is unconstitutional.

2. guns don't kill people - people kill people.

3. when guns are outlawed, only outlaws will have guns.
define "patriarchy"
the structure of patriarchy is one in which the wife is relegated to a position of power and privilege inferior to that of the husband. he is in control, she is obedient.
define the "subculture of interpersonal violence"
groups in which overt physical violence is an acceptable, if not expected, reaction to threats against one's masculinity, reputation and independence.
discuss the "9" sexist aspects of violence....give examples
1. MALE AUTHORITY - presumption that males are superior.

2. COMPULSIVE MASCULINITY - physical aggressiveness is linked with the identity of being a man

3. ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS - physical assaults are therefore often tolerated because of women's lack of prospects outside of marriage.

4. BURDENS OF CHILDCARE - women are primarily responsible for care of children, lack of resources that would allow them to support their children independently lock women into marriage

5. MYTH OF THE SINGLE-PARENT HOUSEHOLD - widely held assumption that a woman cannot raise children alone.

6. PREEMINENCE OF THE WIFE ROLE - women are expected to concentrate on becoming wives and mothers.

7. NEGATIVE SELF-IMAGE - women regard themselves as inferior and tolerate male aggressiveness.

8. WOMEN AS CHILDREN - husbands are seen to have a moral right to discipline their wives as they do their children

9. MALE ORIENTATION OF THE JUSTICE SYSTEM - justice in the US is run by males for males. wives can expect little help from the system.
discuss the "facts" of an ordinary murder.





discuss the typology of violent situations" provided by richard gelles. give concrete examples.
1. violence directed against inanimate objects rather than against a person. the violence is a threat.

ex...husband puts fist through wall

2. normal violence is aimed at achieving a specific short-term goal. it is normal in that not only does the offender feel justified in committing the violence, but the victim also agrees.

ex...the victim admits they asked for it.

3. secondary violence,arises when there is concern over violence against a third party...

ex...parent is spanking a child in a manner that provokes the other parent to react violently to protect the child.

4. protective reaction involves defensive tactics.

ex...wife anticipates violence from the husband may beat him to the punch, retaliate for past beatings.

5. volcanic violence results from stress and frustration and provides a tension release from outside pressures.

ex.....loss of a job

6. alcohol-related, husbands attack only when they are intoxicated

7. sex-related, stem from jealousy and accusations of cheating.
discuss violence as an american value
what is known as the frontier tradition exemplifies the american approval of violence to resolve conflicts. life on the frontier required that individuals rely on their own initiative and resources for nearly everything necessary to exploit what the land had to offer.

vigilante groups were formed to establish order and to maintain security in the absence of official law enforcement.
rene guyon society
support the children's sexual rights movement, advocate changes in the laws regarding the age of consent.
types of molesters (EXAMPLES)
INCESTUOUS MOLESTER - incest refers to any sexual activities between close relatives without benefit of marriage.
the offenders involved in father-daughter sexual contacts constitute a large, if not the largest, category of molesters.

HIGH INTERACTION MOLESTER - higher socioeconomic status, above-average interaction with children outside the home and a higher probability that the victims will be male. examples are scout leaders, dance instructors, elementary school teachers, choir masters, or any other people who use their positions as a means to molest

ASOCIAL MOLESTER- more likely to have criminal records for both sexual and nonsexual offenses, likely to be divorced or never marred.

AGED MOLESTER- older, their child victims are rarely coerced, the offenders are likely to have several noncoital contacts with several neighborhood children before the behavior becomes known to other adults.

CAREER MOLESTER- men with long records of molesting offenses who seek out victims in a deliberate, systematic fashion.

SPONTANEOUS-AGGRESSIVE MOLESTER - usually strangers, usually forcible rape.