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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a baseline?
It is an initial level of a target behavior prior to an experimental intervention.
What is a between-subject design?
It is an experimental design in which different participants are assigned to the different levels of the independent variable.
What is the clinical method?
It is the flexible, semistandardized method of posing problems and questioning children used by Piaget.
What is a cohort?
It is a group of people who share particular experiences and characteristics -- most often defined by year of birth.
What is a confidence interval?
It is a statistical concept that expresses the range of possible values within which the true population value can be assumed to fall with a given probability.
What is confounding?
Unintended conjunction of two potentially important variables.
What is conservation?
It is the knowledge that the quantitative properties of an object or collection of objects are not altered by a change in perceptual appearance.
What is the construct validity (of studies)?
It is the accuracy of the theoretical interpretation of the results of research.
What is the construct validity (of tests)?
It is a form of test validity based on the extent to which a variety of forms of evidence support the theoretical interpretation of the attribute being measured.
What is content validity?
It is a form of test validity based on the adequacy with which the test items represent the attribute being measured.
What is convenience sampling?
Procedure for selection of research participants in which selection is based largely on availability or cooperation.
What is the correlation statistic?
It is an index of the strength and direction of the relation between two variables.
What is correlational research?
It is a form of research in which there is no control of an independent variable but rather examination of possible relationships between two or more measured dependent variables.
What is cross-sectional design?
Design for age comparisons in which different participants are studied at the different ages, all at the same point in time.
What is crystallized intelligence?
Forms of knowledge that are accumulated through experience.
What is debriefing?
It is the ethical principle that states that participants should receive a postexperiment explanation of the true purposes of the research when the study has involved incomplete disclosure or deception.
What is the dependent variable?
It is the variable that the researcher measures in response to variations in the independent variable.
What is the disuse hypothesis?
It is the theory that cognitive skills that are not regularly used become harder to access when needed.
What is the effect size?
It is the measure of magnitude of the relation between the independent and dependent variables.
What is expertise?
It is organized factual knowledge with respect to some content domain.
What is a factor?
It is another term for independent variable.
What is fluid intelligence?
It is the basic problem-solving abilities that is largely independent of experience.
What is an independent review?
It is the principle of ethics that states that all research with human participants must undergo an independent review for ethical standards.
What is an independent variable?
It is a variable that the researcher controls through manipulation or selection in order to examine effects on the dependent variable.
What is an interaction outcome?
It is a research outcome in which the effect that one independent variable has on the dependent variable varies across the levels of another independent variable.
What is internal validity?
Accuracy of conclusions concerning cause-and-effect relations between the variables of a study?
What are levels?
They are the values assumed by the independent variables in a study?
What is a longitudinal design?
It is a design for age comparisons in which the same participants are studied at different ages over time.
What is the main effect?
It is a research outcome in which an independent variable has a direct effect on a dependent variable that is independent of other independent variables in the study.
What are matched-groups design?
It is a form of between-subject design in which participants are matched on a potentially important characteristic or characteristics prior to assignment to experimental conditions.