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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A view of human development that takes into account all phases of life, not just childhood or adulthood
life-span perspective
A characteristic of development, referring to its nonlinear progression- gains and losses, compensations and deficits, predictable and unexpected changes.
A characteristic of development, referring to the fact that each human life takes place within a number of contexts - historical, cultural, and socioeconomic
A characteristic of development, which takes place within many clutural settings worldwide and thus reflects a multitude of values, traditions, and tools for living
A characteristic of development encompassing the idea that dozens of academic disciplines contribute data and insight to the science of development.
A characteristic of development that indicates that individuals- including their personlities as well as their bodies and minds - change throughout the life span
A process of continual change within a person or group, in which each change is connected systematically to ever other development in each individual and every society
dynamic systems
the idea that a small action or event (butterfly wing flap) may set off a series of changes that culminate in a major event (hurricane)
butterfly effect
A group of people whose shared birth year, or decade, means that they travel through life together, experiencing the same major historical changes.
An idea that is built more on shared perceptions of social order than on objective reality
social construction
An indicator of a person's social and economic standing, measured through a combination of family income, educational level, place of residence, occupation, and other variables
socioeconomic status (ses)
the specific manifestations of a social group's design for living, developed over the years to provide a social structure for the group members life together
a collection of people who share certain attributes, almost always including ancestral heritage and often including national origin, religion, customs, and language
ethnic group
a social construction by which biological traits (such as hair or skin color, facial features, and body type) are used to differentiate people whose ancestors came from various regions of the world
an apprach to the systematic pursuit of knowledge that, when applied to the study of development, involves five basic steps: Formulate a research question, develop a hypothesis, test the hypothesis, draw conclusions, and make the findings available
scientific method
a specific prediction that is stated in such a way that it can be tested and either confirmed or refuted
the repetition of a scientific study, using the same precedures on another group of participants, to verify or refute the original study's conclusions
a method of testing hypotheses by unobtrusively watching and recording participants' behavior either in a laboratory or in a natural setting
scientific observation
a number indicating the degree of relationship between two variables, expressed in terms of the likelihood that one variable will (or will not) occur when the other variable does (or does not). A correlation is not an indication that on variable causes the other
A research method in which the researcher tries to determine the cause- and - effect relationship between two variables by manipulating on varable (independent) and then observing and recording the resulting changes in the other (dependent) variable
in an experimental, the participants who are given a particular treatment
experimental group
in an experiment, the participants who are not given special treatment but who are similar to the experimental group in other relevant ways
comparison group
a research method in which information is collected from a large number of people by personal interview, written questionnaire, or some other means
a research method in which one individual is studied intensively
case study
a researh method in which groups of people who differ in age but share other important characteristics are compared
cross-sectional research
a research method in which the same individuals are studied over a long period of time
longitudinal research
a hybrid research method in which researchers first study several groups of people of different ages ( a cross sectional approach) and then follow those groups over the years (longitudinal approach)
cross-sequential research
research that takes into consideration the relationship between the individual and the environment
ecological-systems approach
a set of moral principles that is formally adopted by a group or organization
code of ethics
a systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a coherent framework for studying and explaining development
developmental theory
comprehensive theories that have traditionally inspired and directed thinking about development. (ex: psychoanalytic theory, behaviorism, and cognitive theory)
grand theories
theories that focus on some specific area of development and thus are less general and comprehensive than the grand theoreis
theories that bring together information from many disciplines but that have not yet cohered into theories that are comprehensive and systematic
emergent theories
a grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, many of which originate in childhood, underlie human behavior.
psychoanalytic theory
a grand theory of human development that focuses on the sequences and precesses by which behavior is learned
(also called learning theory)
according to behaviorism, any process in which a behavior is learned. (classic and operant)
the process by which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus, so that the organism responds to the former stimulus as if it were the latter
classical conditioning
the process by which a response is gradually learned via reinforcement or punishment
operant conditioning
the process in which a behavior is followed by results that make it more likely that the behavior will be repeated. this occers in operant conditioning
an application of behaviorism that emphasizes that many human behaviors are learned through observation and imitation of other people
social learning theory
in social learning theory, the process in which people observe and then copy the behavior of others.
in social learning theory, the belief that one is effective, it motivates people to change themselves and their contexts
a grand theory of human development that focuses on the structure and development of thinking, which shapes people's attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.
cognitive theory
in cognitive theory, a state of mental balance in which a person is able to reconcile new experiences with existing understanding
cognitive equilibrium
an emergent theory that holds that human development results from the dynamic interaction between each person and the surrounding social and cultural forces
sociocultural theory
In sociocultural theory, the process by which novices develop cognitive competencies through interaction with more skilled members of the society, often parents or teachers, who act as tutors or mentors
apprenticeship in thinking
in sociocultural theory, the process by which a skilled person helps a novice learn by providing not only instruction but also a direct, shared involvement in the learning process
guided participation
in sociocultural theory, the range of skills that a learner can exercise and master with assistance but cannot yet perform independently. According to vygotsky, learning can occur within this zone
zone of proximal development
an emergent theory of development that emphasizes the interaction of the genes and the environment- that is, both the gentec origins of behavior and the direct, systematic influence that enironmental forces have, oer time, on genes.
epigenetic theory
the belief that every aspect of development is set in advance by genes and then is gradually manifested in the course of maturation
the idea that humans and other animals grdually adjust to their environment; specifically, the process by which the frequency of particular genetic traits in a population increases or decreases over generations, depending on whether the traits contribute to the survival of the species.
selective adaptation
the study of patterns of animal behavior, particularly as that behavior relates to evolutionary origins and species survival
the approach taken by most developmentalists, in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories of development rather than adhering exclusively to one theory
eclectic perspective
a general term for the traits, capacties, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment of conception
a general term for all the environmental influences that affect development after and individual is conceived.