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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Infants and toddlers "think" with their eyes, eawrs, hands, and other sensorimotor equipment;
Spans the first two years of life
Rapid growth in respresentation takes place;
Thought is not yet logical;
Spans years 2-7
Concrete operational
Thought is logical, flexible, and organized in its application to concrete information;
Capacity for abstract thinking is not yet present;
Spans the years 7 to 11
Formal operational
Adolescents develop the capacity for abstract, systematic, scientific thinking;
Begins around 11 years of age
Basic trust vs mistrust
birth-1 year;
From warm, responsive care, infants gain a sense of trust, or confidence that the world is good. Mistruts occurs when infants have to wiat too long for comfort and are handled harshly
Autonomy vs sham and doubt
1-3 years;
Using new mental and motor skills, children want to choos and decide for themselvs. Autonomy is fostered whe parets permit reasonale fee chioces and do not force or shame the child.
Initiative vs guilt
3-6 years;
Through make-believe play, children explore the kind of person they can become. Initiative--a sense of ambition and responsibility--devleops when parents support thier child's new sense of purpose. When parents demand too much self-control, they induce excessive guilt.
Industry vs inferiority
6-11 years;
At school, children develop the capacity to work and cooperate with others. Inferiority develops when negative experiences at home, at school, or with peers lead to feelings of imcompetence.
Identity vs role confusion
At school, children develop the capacity to work and cooperate with others. Inferiority develops when negative experiences at home, at school, or with peers lead to feelings of imcompetence.
Intimacy vs isolation
Early adulthood;
Young adutls work on establishing intimate ties to others. Because of earlier disappointments, some individuals cannot from clost relationshipsand remain isolated.
Generativity vs stagnation
Middle adulthood;
Middle-aged adults contribute to the next generation through child rearing, caring for other people, or productive work. The person who fails in these ways feels an absence of meaningful accomplishment.
Ego integrity vs despair
Late adulthood;
Elders relflect on the kind of person they have been. Integrity resutls from feeling that life was worth living as it happended. Those who are disatisfied with their lives fear death.
Age-graded influences
events that are strongly related to age and therefore fairly predictable in when they occur and how long they last
History-graded influences
expalin why people born around the same time--called a cohort--tend to be alike in ways that sent them apart from people born at other times
Three components of Freud theory of personality
Super Ego
basic biological needs;
opperates on pleasure principle;
impulsive gratification;
present at birth
opperates off of reality principle;
moderates between ID and super ego
Super Ego
moral principle;
Classical conditioning
a form of learning that inolves associating a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response. Once a person's nervous system makes the connection between the two stimuli, the neutral stimulus will produce the behavior by itself.
Operant conditioning
learning through reinforcement
Social learning
learning through observation;
someone can be reinforced by watching others
Naturalistic observation
a method in which the researcher goes into the natural environment to record the behavior of interest
Clinical observations
evokes a certain type of behavior
Structured interviews
each person is asked the same set of questions in the same way
Case study
an intense look at a person
Correlational study
a relationship between two variables; does not establish cause and effect
Experimental design
does establish cause and effect
Longitudinal study
a research design in which participants are studied repeatedly, and changes are noted as they get older
Cross-sectional study
people of different ages studied at the same time
Authoritative parenting
high levels of control;
high levels of accceptance, nurturing, and involvement
Authoritarian parenting
high levels of control;
low levels of acceptatnce, involvement;
low autonomy granting; not much room for discussion and compromise
Permissive parenting
low levels of control, high levels of acceptance; low levels of autonomy granting; child is given adult-like responsibilities way before necessary
Uninvolved parenting
low control;
low acceptance;
low autonomy granting
Step 1 of distributive justice: Strict equality
each person gets the same amount of a treasured resource
Step 2 of distributive justice: Merit
rewards should go to someone who has worked especially hard or otherwise performed in an exceptional way
Step 3 of distributive justice: Equity and benenovalance
special consideration should be given to those at an advantage
Preconventional level
external control;
punishment vs reward
Conventional level
conforming to social rules
rules don't apply if a greater good is to be had