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62 Cards in this Set

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Able to use either hand with good coordination and fine motor skills; left-handed people are more likely to be this way
The ability to perform a motor activity without thinking
Like walking downstairs without looking
Intrinsically motivated behavior
Behavior performed for its own sake, with no particular goal- demonstrates self-control.
Extrinsically motivated behavior
Behavior performed to obtain rewards or avoid aversive events- not to be confused with self control.
Sheathing of the fast-acting central nervous system pathways, increasing its speed and precision of transmission.
The specialization of the brain's hemispheres as specific skills and competencies become localized.
Causes handedness.
The level of maturation and certain basic skills that should be present for learning any new motor or cognitive skill.
The self-designed, self-paced learning through imitation, repetition, and exporing necessary to motor development.
The product of a focused, alert, and engaged state of mind. Often children attend to and follow instructions best when they actively imitate motor skills.
Preconceptual Period
The first stage of Piaget's preoperational period, ages 2-4. Children utilize symbolic play and communication.
Intuitive or Transitional Period
The second stage of Piaget's preoperational period, ages 5-7. Children better grasp reality, causation, and other points of view, though inconsistently.
Giving lifelike qualities to inanimate (but perhaps moving) objects, e.g. the sun.
Representation of imaginary ideas as real. Difficult to think abstractly, they take things literally.
A self-centered view of the world, perceiving everything in relation to yourself.
Symbolic Representation
The use of actions, images, or words to represent objects, experiences, concepts, and events.
The understanding that changing the shape or appearance of an object doesn't change the amount- a limitation on preoperational thinking.
Zone of Proximal Development
Vygotsky's concept that children develop through participation in activities slightly beyond their competence with the help of an older person.
The progressive structuring of parent-child interactions, so that the difficulty of tasks is appropriate to the child's ability.
The ability to correctly identify items previously experienced when they appear again.
The ability to retrieve information with or without cues.
Mental sequences for routine events, remembering the order that repeated events occur.
To generalize language principles and misuse words; typically by preschool children who are expanding their vocabulary.
Private Speech
The language one uses to talk aloud to oneself.
Collective Monologues
Children's conversations that include taking talking turns, but not necessarily about the same topic.
The social and practical aspects of language use, when children learn how to properly converse.
Dramatic Play
Imitation of behavior, fantasy, and novel ways of interaction as children learn the social aspects of their culture; ages 3 or 4
Parallel Play
When children play side by side but do not interact cognitively, too egocentric to play socially.
The nature and process of mental operations
The quality (magnitude, efficacy, strength) of mental operations
Intelligence quotient- mental age divided by chronological age, times 100; an accurate predictor of academic success (Stanford Binet)
Deviation IQ
Compares an individual's raw IQ score with the scores of other subjects the same age, everyone drops out of the test according to the discontinuation criteria (Weschler)
Verbal IQ
Measure of linguistic, reasoning, abstraction, social, concentration/memory, and knowledge skills.
Performance IQ
Measure of perceptual, spatial, coordination, nonverbal, and motor skills.
The IQ Controversy
Whites score higher than minorities, due to cultural bias, lack of diversity, and cultural/SES disadvantages.
6 R's of Learning
Remembering, reasoning, repeating, reorganizing, relating, reflecting.
Mental Retardation
low levels of intellectual functioning and self-help skills due to genetics, brain trauma, or unknown- mild, moderate, severe or profound.
Learning Disorders
Extreme difficulty in learning specific school subjects despite normal intelligence and absence of sensory or motor disabilities.
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder- inability to focus on something long enough to learn it, often with poor impulse control.
Ideas about fairness and justice, right and wrong, good and bad.
Social Inference
Guesses and assumptions about what another person is feeling, thinking or intending; component of social cognition.
Social repsonsibility
Obligations to family, friends, and society at large; component of social cognition.
Social regulations
The rules and conventions governing social interactions; component of social cognition.
Piaget's view of morality
Moral structure evolves developmentally in interaction between changing cognition and social experience- realism and relativism
Moral Realism
Piaget's first stage of moral development- children believe in rules as real, indestructible things.
Moral Relativism
Piaget's second stage of moral development- children realize that rules are agreements that may change if necessary
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
Expansion of Piaget's view, a cognitive 6-step model
Kohlberg's Stage 1 of Moral Development
Punishment and obedience orientation- obeys rules to avoid punishment
(Preconventional stage)
Kohlberg's Stage 2 of Moral Development
Naive instrumental hedonism- obeys to receive rewards and returned favors
(Preconventional stage)
Kohlberg's Stage 3 of Moral Development
"Good boy" morality of conforming to maintain good relations, approval of others
(Conventional stage)
Kohlberg's Stage 4 of Moral Development
Authority-maintaining morality- to avoid being found guilty by authorities.
(Conventional stage)
Kohlberg's Stage 5 of Moral Development
Morality of contract, of individual rights, and of democratic law- abides laws for community welfare
(Postconventional stage)
Kohlberg's Stage 6 of Moral Development
Morality of individual principles of conscience- universal ethical principles
(Postconventional stage)
Gilligan and Gender
Male moral reasoning based on justice; female moral reasoning based on human relationships and caring.
Rite of passage
Symbolic events or rituals to mark life transitions, such as from childhood to adulthood (all cultures)
Three Tasks of Adolescence
1. Form identity
2. Separate from parents
3. Deal with sexuality
The onset of menstruation
The attainment of physical sexual maturity
Anorexia Nervosa
An eating disorder characterized by obsession by thoughts of an unattainable image of perfect thinness
Bullemia nervosa
An eating disorder characterized by binging and purging.
Imaginary Audience
Adolescent's assumption that others are focusing a great deal of critical attention on them
Personal Fable
Adolescent's feeling that they are special and invulnerable- exempt from the laws of nature that control the destinies of ordinary mortals.
A struggle to resolve contradictions in more complex moral issues