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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
initiative versus guilt
the third of Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development, in which the young child eagerly begins new projects and activities and feels guilt when his or her efforts result in failure or criticism.
many factors influence growth
the three most influential factors are: genes, health and nutrition
the process by which axons and dendrites become insulated with a coating of myelin, a fatty substance that speed transmission of verve impulses for nueron to neuron in the brain
children attempt to construct a theory to explain everything they see and hear
Vygotsky theoried that children do not strive....
their efforts are embedded in .....

a social context
zone of proximal development
a range of skills that a person can exercise with assistance but is not quite able to preform independentyl
theory of mind
an understanding of human mental processes
guided participation
the adult or other mentor's aid in guiding the next step of learning motivated by the learners' need for social interaction
the preschoolers tendency to look to others for insight and guidance, particularly in the cognitive realm
the building blocks for learning put in place by a "teacher" or culture
emergent theory
theories that bring together information for many disciplines but that have not yet cohered into theories that are comprehensive and systematic
fast mapping
the speedy and not very precise process of acquiring vocabulary by mentally "charting' new words into interconnected categories
the young child's tendency to apply the rules of grammar even when doing so is not necessarily important
Montessori schools, child-centered and readiness programs, and reggio-emilia and kindergarten
good preschools
emotional regulation
the ability beginning in early childhoog to direct or modify one's feelings particularly feelings of fear, frustration and anger
behaving in ways that help other people with obvious benifit to onesself
behaving in ways that are deliberatly hurtful or destructive
instrumental aggression
forceful behavior that is aimed at getting of keeping an object or priviledge that is also desired by another person
reactive aggression
forceful behavior that is an angry retalitation for some intential or accidental act
relational aggression
forceful behavior that takes the form of insults or social rejection aimed at harming social connections
bullying aggression
forceful behavior that taks the form of an unprovoked physical or verbal attack on another especially one who is unlikely to defend himself or herself
rough and tumble play
a type of active play- that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing or hitting but that actually occurs in fun, with no intent to harm
sociodramatic play
a type of imaginative play- pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create themselves
authoritarian parenting
the word is the law, not to be questioned: raise children who are likely to be conscientious, obedient, and quiet, they more likely to feel guilty or depressed and internalize frustrations
permissive parenting
some parents make few demands, hiding any impatience they feel. the parent seldom punishes guides or controls their chil, but are nurturant and communicate well with the child: raise children who are likely to be less happy, and lack self-control, their inadequate emotional regulation makes them immature
Authoritative parenting
the parents set limits and provide guidance for their child but are willings to listen to the chil's ideas and to make compromise: raise children who are likely to be successful articulart intelligent happy with themselves and generous with others
the purpose of childrens play before the age of 6
is learning development