Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Scientific study of human development
the science that seeks to understand the ways in which people change and remain the same as they grom older, from conception until death.
Life-span perspective
a view of human development that takes into account all phases of human life, not just childhood or adulthood.
a charateristic of development referring to its nonlinear progression -- gains and loses, compensations and deficits, predictibale and unexpected changes.
a characteristic of development referring to the fact that each human life takes place within a number of contexts -- historical, cutural, and socioeconomic.
a characteristic of development which takes place within many cultural settings and thus reflects a multitude of values, traditions, and tools for living.
a chrarcteristic of development encompassing the idea that dozens of academic disciplines cintribute data and insight to the science of development.
a characteristic of development that indicates the indivduals -- including their personalities as well as their bodies and minds -- change throughout the life span.
dynamic systems
a process of continual change within a person or group in which each change is connected systematically to every other development in each individual and every society.
butterfly affect
the idea that a small action or event may set off a series of changes tha culminate in a major event.
a group of people whose shared birth year or decade means that they travel through life toghether, expericeing the same historical changes.
social construction
an idea that is built more on shared perceptions of social order that on objective reality.
SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS: an indicatiof of a person's social and economic standing, measured though a combination of family income, educational level, place of residence, occupation and other variables.
the specific manifestations of social group's design for living, developed over the years to provide a social structure for the group members life toghether.
ethnic group
a collection of pelple who share certian attributes, almost always including ancestral heritage and often including national orgin, religion, customs, and language
a social consturction by which biologicial traits are used to differentiate people whose ancestors came from various regions of the world
scientific method
an approach to the systematic pursuit of knowledge that, when applien to eht study of development, invloves five basic steps: Formulate a research question, develop a hypothesis, test the hypothesis, drew conclutions, and make the findings available.
a specific prediction that is stated in such a way that it can be tested and either confirmed or refuted.
the repition of a scientific study, using the same procedures on another group of participants to verify or refute to origional studies conclutions.
scientific observation
a method of testing hypothesis by unobtrusively watching and recording participants behavior either in a laboratory or naturay setting.
a number indicating the degree of the relationship between two variiables, expressed in terms of the likelyhood that one variable will (or will not) occur when thge other variable does (or does not). Correlation in NOT causation.
independent variable
in an expierment, the variable that is introduced or changed to seee what effect ti has on the dependent varriable.
dependent varriable
in and expierment the cariabl tha may change as a result of the introductgion of or changes made in the independent variable.
ecological-systems approach
research that takes into consideration the relationship between the individual and the environment.
Development is the product of _________?
How does the butterfly affect contribute to this concept?
development is the product of DYNAMIC SYSTEMS.
Any one change affects an interconnected system, and one person affects all the other people in a family or social group.
developmental theory
a systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a coherent framework for studying and explaining development.
psychoanalytic theory
a grand theory of human development that holds irrational, unconscious drives and motives, many of which originate in childhood, underlie human behavior. Every drive and motive is faced with varrious conflicts which are delat eith through the use of ones id, ego, and super ego.
What is psychosexual development?
Freuds Idea tha development is dependent upon an infants to ability to "sexually satisify" itself in the following order.
0-1 Oral_sucking
1-3 Anal_toilet training
3-6 Phallic_Penis
6-11 Latency_social skills
Teen Genitial_Sexual pleasure
What is Psychosocial development?
Erickons idea that development is dependent on the successfull conquring of eight specific conflicts life brings in the following order:
Trust vs mistrust
autonomy vs shame and doubt
initiative vs guilt
industury vs inferiority
idenity vs role confussion
intimacy vs isoloitation
generativity vs stagnation
integgiry vs despair
a grand theory of human development that focuses on the sequences and processes by which behavior is learned.
according to behaviorisim, any precess by which behavior is learned. Occurs in two forms: clasical and operant conditioning.
classical conditioning
the process by which a neutral stimulus becomes associated ith a meaningful stimulus, so that the organisim responds to the former stimulus as if it were the latter
operant conditioning
the proce4ss by which a response is gradually learned vias reinforcement or punishment
the process in which a behaviour is followed by results that will make it more likely that the behavior will be repeated.
social learning theory
an applivation of behavior that emphasizes that many human behaviors are learned through observation and imitation of other people.
in social learning theory, the process in which people observe and then copy the behaviors of others
self efficacyt
ijn social learning theory, the belief that one is effective; self efficacy motivates peole to change tghemselves and their contexts.
cognitive theory
a grand theory of human development that focuses on the structure of thinking, which shapes peoples attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors
cognitive equilibrium
in cognitive theory, a state of mental ballance in which a person is able to reconccile new expericences with existing understanding.
sociocultural theory
an emergent theory that holds that human development results from the dynamic interaction between each person and the suronding social and cultural forces.
apprenticeship in thinking
in sociocultural theory, the process by which novices develop cognitive compenticies through interaction with more skilled members of the society, often parents or teachers, who act as tutors or mentors.
guided participation
in sociocultural theory, the process by which a skilled person helps a novice learn by providing not only instruction but also a direct sharred involvement in the learning process.
zone of proxmial development
in sociocultural theory, the range of skills that a learner can exceriser and master with assistance but cannot yet perform independently. According to vygotsky, learning can occur within this zone.
epigenetic theory
an emergent theory of development that emphasis the interaction of geans and the environment. That is, both the genetic orgins of behavior and the direct systematic influence that environmental factors have, over time , on genes.
the belief that every aspect of development is set in advance by genes and then is gradually manifested in the course of maturation.
selective adaption
The idea that humans and other animals gradually adjust to their environment, specifically the process by which the frequency of particular genetic traits in a populus increases or decreases over generations, depending on whether the traits contribute to the survival of the species.