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60 Cards in this Set

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seeks to understand how and why people change, how they do not change, from concept until death
scientific study of human development
4 words
a way of studying human development that takes into account every moment of life
life-span perspective
changes occur in every direction, not always in a straight line.(gains and losses,predicatable growth and unexpected transformation)
life span perspective characteristic
human lives are embedded in many contexts including history, economic and cultural traditions
life span perspective characteristic
science of development recognizes there are many cultures
life span perspective characteristic
numerous academic fields contribute to science of development
life span perspective characteristic
every individual and every trait within an individual can be altered at any point
life span perspective characteristic
process of continual change within a person or group
dynamic systems
potential power of a small change
butterfly effect
a group of people whos shared birth year means they travel through life together
idea built more on shared perceptions of social order on objective reality
social construction
an indicator of a persons social and economic standing
socioeconomic status
SES(education, income, neighborhood)
neighbors create a functioning informal network of people who show concern for each other
collective efficiency
What is the single most important predictor of a resilient child?
Quality of parenting
manifestations of a social groups design for living
shares certain attributes, almost always including heritage and national origin, religion and language
ethnic group
social construction by which biological traits are used to differentiate people whose ancestors came from various regions
formulate a research question, develop a hypothesis, test, draw conclusions, and make findings available
scientific method
repetition of a scientific study
specific strategies or methods used to gether and analyze data and test hypotheses.
a number indicating the degree of relationship between two variables
relationship to
no special treatment in an experiment
comparision group
intensive study of one individual
case study
research method in which groups of people who differ in age but share important characteristics are compared
cross sectional research
research method in which the same individuals are studied over a long period of time

** time consuming and expensive**
longitudinal research
allows scientists to disentangle differences related to chronological age from those related to historical period.
cross sequential research
research that takes into consideration the relationship between the individual and the environment
ecological systems approach
elements of the persons immediate surroundings
local institutions like a school and church
the larger social setting
set of moral principles that is formally adopted by a group or organization
code of ethics
systematic statement of principles and generalizations for understanding how and why people change as they grow older
developmental theory
psychoanalytic, behaviorism and cognitive theory
examples of grand theories
focus on some specific are of development
may become new systematic theories of the future
emergent theories
up and coming
Who developled the pyschoanalytic theory
Sigmund Freud
theory that holds that irrational, unconscious drive and motives originate in childhood and explain human behavior
psychoanalytic theory
believe in Freuds psychoanalytic theory but emphasizes peoples relationships to their family and culture rather than sexual urges
Erik Erikson
created theory of behaviorism
John B. Watson
second grand theory that focus on the sequences and processes by which a behavior is learned
any process by which a behavior is learned
neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus
classical conditioning
process by which a response is gradually learned via reinforcement or punishment
operant conditioning
process by which a behavior is followed by results that makes it more likely the behavior will be repeated.
application of behaviorism that emphasizes that many human behaviors are learned through observation imitation of other people
social learning theory
process by which people observe and the copy
motivates people to change themselves
grand theory that focuses on structure and development of thinking- how we think rather than what we know
cognitive theory
state of mental balance in which a person is able to reconcile new experiences
cognitive equilibrium
developed cognitive theory
Jean Piaget
theory that focuses on emotions
Sigmund Freud
theory that focuses on ideas, beliefs and assumptions
theory that focuses on actions
John Watson
emergent theory that holds that human development results from the interaction between each person and the surrounding social and cultural forces
sociocultural theory

founder of sociocultural theory
Lev Vygotsky
guided participation and apprenticeship in thinking
sociocultural theory
the skills some one learns from another with assistance but can not yet perform them on their own
zone of proximal development
emergent theory that emphasizes interaction of genes and the environment
epigenetic theory
belief that every aspect of development is set in advance by genes
newest developmental theory
humans and animals gradually adjust to their environment
selective adaptation