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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Stranger anxiety is most intense when the infant is:
17-18 months (emerges at 8-10 months)
Delinquent adolescents are most likely to have parents who are:
The goodness-of-fit model developed by Thomas and Chess proposes that healthy development requires a match in:
temperment and environment
Which aspect of memory shows the most decline with age?
Secondary (recent long-term) memory
According to Patterson, highly aggressive children typically have
highly aggressive parents (he focused on family factors)
Anxiety about death is greatest amongs individuals aged:
Describe Piaget's stages:
Sensorimotor: birth - 2
Preoperational: 2-7
Concrete Operational: 7-12
Formal Operational: 12-
In Piaget's theory, horizontal decalage refers to:
the sequential mastery of concepts within a stage of development
Describe Bronfenbenner's ecologicval model:
Microsystem: family, daycare, school
Mesosystem: interconnections between micro parts
Exosystem: parent's jobs, friends, community
Macrosystem: cultural context
Describe the difference between Piaget's and Vygotsky views on cognitive dvelopment:
Piaget - universal invariant stages
Vygotsjky - varies depending on social and cultural context
Research on adolescents with an illness such as diabetes has found that:
as tghey gain greater awareness of their illness and difference from others, they rely on defense mechanisms such as denail and tend to be non-compliant with treatment
Resistant attachment:
Anxious in presence of mom, very upset when she leaves, ambivalent when she returns, and may resist her attempts at physical contact.
Avoidant attachment:
Anxious in presence of mom, uninterested in the environment, show little distress when she leaves, may avoid her when she returns.
Using the Adult Attachment Interview, a mother who reports a good childhood without any specific examples is likely to have a child with:
Avoidant attachment
During the third week of prenatal development, which organ is most vulnerable:
the CNS (heart as well)
Older adults typically suffer deficits in which type of memory:
Explicit (deliberate)
Delay recall of specific evetns is first evident when children are___ months old?
13 months (11 months for immediate recall)
Research on maternal employment & child acdemic achievement has shown that:
children whose mothers want to be employed but stay at home, have the lowest levels of achievement
Research on the effects of divorce on children has shown that:
Older children are better able to understand than younger children, and thus exhibit less negative effects at he time of the divorce, but often display delayed negative effects
In terms of divorce, the "sleeper effect" refers to:
the appearance of symptoms in females who seemed to be doing well at the time of the divorce 10 years earlier
Older adults do worse on secondary memory tasks due to:
using less efficient encoding strategies
Delinquency in adolescence is most associated with
weak parental superision & parental rejection
The psychomotor agitationof depression is manifested how in children & adolescents?
Children: Irritability

Adolescents; Aggression
Best approach to control aggression in children
social-skills training
Malnutrition during the final months of pregnancy results in impaired cognitive outcomes because:
Brain develops then & malnutrition interferes with the development of new neurons and dendrites which connect them
Mothers of avoidant-attachment babies are:
Very impatient & nonresponsive or alternatively overstimulating
Children begin to use rehearsal strategies at age:
9 or 10
Factors predicitve of poorer adjustment in children whose parents have divorced:
Rapid remarriage of one, exposure to parental conflict, continuance of unhappy marriage, failure to allow child relatiohsip with non-custodial parent
Erikson's stages & succesful result:
Trust vs. Mistrust = Hope
Autonomy vs. Doubt = Will
Intiative vs. Guilt = Purpose
Industry vs. Inferiority = Competence
Identity vs. Role Confusion = Fidelity
Intimacy vs. Isolation = Love
Generativity vs. Stagnation = Care
Ego Integration vs. Despair = Wisdom
Frequency of sex in later life is most highly correlated with:
Available partners
With regards to elementary school & college, the correlation between IQ & academic performance is:
Greater in elementary school, and smaller in college
Typical characteristics of an abusive parent:
Female, married, history of abuse.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis:
language we use shapes how we think (Eskimos think differently about snow)
Heritability of Intelligence:
MZ Twins reared together: .88
MZ Twins Reared apart:.75
Siblings reared together:.49
Siblings reared apart:.46
Assessing perceptual abilities in infants: what and when can various dependent measurements be used?
Sucking: 1-4 months
Reaching: 12 weeks +
Heartrate: any age
Head Turning: 5.5 months +
Disorganized-attached children have what level of cortisol during the Starge Situation?
Elevated throughout (secure have higher as caregiver leaves, and lower as she returns)
Which gender adapts better when their mother remarries after divorce?
Acc. to Gilligan, adolescent girls need expereinces that help them
stay connected to themslves & others
Age of fastest rate of vocabulary increase
30-36 months
Inductive & deductive reasoning:
Inductive = facts to general rule
Deductive = general rule to facts
Ability to mentally sort objects (Concrete operational stage)
Signs of the personality characteristic of social inhibition, are usually present by age of...
2-4 months
Relationships amongs pre-adolescent siblings are characterized by:
Conflict & closeness
Most common cause of MR?
Embryonic problems
Preference for handedness expresses first at what age?
Age 2, abd is firmly established at 7-8
Maternal anxiety is most related to:
Increased activity level of fetus & increased crying of newborn
Through play, children develop...
Mastery of difficult situations & feelings
Emotions infant can express at birth?
Contentment, distress & interest
Unpopular children tend to be:
Less intelligent, less attractive, & less cooperative