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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Adaptation
The tendency to respond to the demands of the environment to meet one’s goals
Organization
The tendency to integrate particular observations into coherent knowledge
Assimilation
The process by which people translate incoming information into a form they can understand
Accommodation
The process by which people adapt current knowledge structures in response to new experiences
Equilibration
The process by which people balance assimilation and accommodation to create stable understanding
Continuity/Discontinuity
Continual process of equilibration
egocitrism
the tendency to view the world solely from ones own point of view


Substage 6
Weaknesses of Piaget’s theory
The stage model depicts children’s thinking as being more consistent than it is

Infants and young children are more cognitively competent than Piaget recognized

Piaget’s theory understates the contribution of the social world to cognitive development

Piaget’s theory is vague about the cognitive processes that give rise to children’s thinking and about the mechanisms that produce cognitive growth
Social referencing
tendency to look to social partners for guidance about how to respond to unfamiliar or threatening events
Social scaffolding
more competent people provide a temp framework that supports childrens thinking at a higher level then children could manage on their own.
Joint attention
a process in which social partners intentionally focus on a common referent in the external environment
guided participation
a process in which more knowledfeable indibiduals organize activities in ways that allow less knowledge able people to learn.
Sensori- motor stage
Infants know the world through their senses and through their actions. For example, they learn what dogs look like and what petting them feels like.

Birth to 2 years
Preopera-tional stage
Toddlers and young children acquire the ability to internally represent the world through language and mental imagery. They also begin to be able to see the world from other people’s perspectives, not just from their own.
2-7
Concrete Operational
Children become able to think logically, not just intuitively. They now can classify objects into coherent categories and understand that events are often influenced by multiple factors, not just one.
Sensorimotor Substage 1
Modification of Reflexes Infants begin to modify the reflexes with which they are born to make them more adaptive.
Sensorimotor Substage 2
Primary Circular Reactions Infants begin to organize separate reflexes into larger behaviors, most of which are centered on their own bodies.
Sensorimotor Substage 3
Secondary Circular Reactions Infants becoming increasingly interested in the world around them. Repetition of actions that bring pleasurable or interesting results. By the end of this substage, object permanence, the knowledge that objects continue to exist even when they are out of view, typically emerges.
Sensorimotor Substage 4
During this substage, children make the A-Not-B error, the tendency to reach to where objects have been found before, rather than to where they were last hidden.
Sensorimotor Substage 5
Little Scientist Toddlers begin to actively and avidly explore the potential uses to which objects can be put.
Sensorimotor Substage 6
Infants become able to form enduring mental representations. The first sign of this capacity is deferred imitation, the repetition of other people’s behavior a substantial time after it occurred.
Formal Operational stage
Adolescents can think systematically and reason about what might be as well as what is. This allows them to understand politics, ethics, and science fiction, as well as to engage in scientific reasoning.
deferred imitation
deferred imitation, the repetition of other people’s behavior a substantial time after it occurred.
object permanence
object permanence, the knowledge that objects continue to exist even when they are out of view, typically emerges.
A-Not-B error
A-Not-B error, the tendency to reach to where objects have been found before, rather than to where they were last hidden.
symbolic representation
the use of one object to stand for another
Preoperational Stage
centration
Preoperational Stage
the tendecy to focus on a single, perceptually striking feature of an object or event
conservation concept
Preoperational Stage
the idea tht merely changing the appearnce of objects does not chnge their key properies
4 weaknesses of piaget
-the stage model depicts children's thinking as being more consistent then it actuslly is
-infants & young children one more competent than what piaget gave them credit for.
-theory understates the contribution of the social world
-theory is vague about the cognitive processes that give rise to children's thinking & about the mechanisms that produce cognitive growth