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186 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
when a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction to enable fertilisation.
first menstrual period
beginning of development of sperm in boys’ testicles at puberty
the androgen most important in
pubertal development among boys
sex hormones that have especially
high levels in females from puberty onward and are mostly responsible for female primary and secondary sex characteristics
primary sex characteristics
production of eggs (ova) and sperm and the development of the sex organs
secondary sex characteristics
bodily changes of puberty not directly related to reproduction
adolescent growth spurt
increase in height and weight—accelerates in the first half of puberty and is completed when the child has developed an adult body
secular trend
change in the characteristics of a population over time: average age of menarche is decreasing
eating disorder characterized by
intentional self-starvation
eating disorder characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by purging (self-induced vomiting)
hypothetical-deductive reasoning
the ability to develop a hypotheses about the ways to solve a problem, and then to systematically conclude, or deduce, the best path for solving the problem.
personal fable
belief in one’s personal uniqueness, often including a sense of invulnerability to the
consequences of taking risks
imaginary audience
belief that others are acutely
aware of and attentive to one’s appearance and behavior
factors contributing to timing of menarche
heredity, weight, family environment, race
how does sleep change in adolescence?
circadian rhythm changes: going to bed later (can self select bed times, more stimulation, stress/anxiety make it difficult to fall asleep)
how do changes in adolescent sleep relate to problems they face?
Later bed times coupled with earlier rising times: 40% of adolescents are sleep deprived. Circadian shift on weekends affect rhythm.
Career Path, Political Affiliation
Spiritual Beliefs, Relationship Identity, Sexual Identity, Achievement Identity, Ethnic Identity, Personal Identity
sexual orientation
describes an enduring pattern of attraction—emotional, romantic, sexual, or some combination of these—to the opposite sex, the same sex, both, or neither, and the genders that accompany them
tightly structured groups of 5-7 friends- begin as same sex, by mid-adolescence mixed sex, in late adolescence groups of couples
larger, more loosely organized groups of cliques- based on reputation and stereo type, provides identity in larger school culture
generation gap
parent-adolescent differences in values and attitudes (studies show differences mostly in personal preferences, not in the importance of hard work,
educational aspirations, core values)
G. Stanley Hall's theory of storm and stress
three key aspects: conflict with parents, mood disruptions, and risky behavior- not all adolescents experience it, but is more likely during adolescence than at other ages (recent research with rats demonstrated this)
boys - characteristics associated with early maturation
viewed as mature, relaxed, independent, self-confident, physically attractive; leadership positions; report slightly more psych. stress; more positive body image; declines in academic performance; may become rigid, inflexible, conforming and somewhat discontented adults
girls - characteristics associated with early maturation
Withdrawn, lacking in self- confidence, and psychologically stressed
Hold fewer leadership positions
Below average popularity
Less positive body image, which persists
Declines in academic performance and increased deviance
Less problematic if attending K-6 rather than K-8 schools
Lower educational attainment
Less delinquency if in all-girl schools
boys - characteristics associated with late maturation
Viewed as anxious, overly talkative and attention seeking
Poorer body image, which resolves after puberty occurred
More independent, flexible, cognitively competent and satisfied adults
girls - characteristics associated with late maturation
Regarded as attractive, lively and sociable
Often in leadership positions
May become rigid, inflexible, conforming and somewhat discontented adults
Changes associated w/ puberty and parent/adolescent relationships
Some increase in conflict, especially bickering- due to changes in the balance of power, puberty and cognitive changes
4 identity statuses (James Murcia)
moratorium, achieved, diffusion, foreclosed
Ongoing and active exploration of alternatives to find values and goals that fit and will provide guidance and coherence
Considered the other “high status” or positive identity formation stage
They describe their current thinking and behavior in terms of active exploration of different points of view or behaviors
May seem frustrated or confused, but they are actively addressing these issues
identity achieved
Committed to a clearly formulated set of values and goals
Feel a sense of psychological well-being, self-continuity, and purpose
Have reached this stage after having passed through moratorium
identity forclosure
Have accepted values and goals that authority figures have chosen for them
It is not just that they agree with authority figures, but that they have clearly NOT gone through a stage of active questioning before arriving at these goals and values
Typically they name the group they agree with and often express the opinion that questioning those views would not be a worthwhile or admirable exercise
identity diffusion
Do not have a firm commitment to values or goals and are not actively exploring alternatives
Apathetic, powerless, disinterested, disdainful responses
Kohlberg's 3 levels of moral reasoning
preconventional reasoning, conventional reasoning, postconventional reasoning
preconventional reasoning
individuals show concern with self interest and external rewards and punishments
conventional reasoning
individual does what is expected of them by others
postconventional reasoning
individual develops more autonomous decision making based on principles of rights and justice
Kohlberg's tasks
presented a series of fictional dilemmas, each of which was constructed to elicit moral reasoning. ex. a man must decide whether or not to steal a drug he cannot afford, to save his dying wife; train dilemma; bridge/train dilemma
health sexual development
Need to feel comfortable with maturing body
Accept having feelings of sexual arousal as normal
Understanding that sex is a voluntary activity
Understanding and practicing safe sex
describe adolescent susceptibility to addiction
decrease in dopamine production after drug/alcohol use, extremely sensitive period for the dopaminergic systerm
emerging adulthood
Approximately 18-25 years old
Socially constructed period because of delays in adult milestones
Involves experimentation and exploration of lifestyle choices and decision making
postformal thinking involves
adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situations
reflective thinking
capacity to evaluate the
accuracy and logical coherence of evidence and
arguments, theorized to develop during emerging
postformal thought
the stage of cognitive development that follows formal operations and includes advances in pragmatism and reflective judgment
a disorder that involves long-term, repeated, uncontrolled, compulsive, and excessive use of alcoholic beverages
binge drinking
four or more drinks in one instance of drinking-
cardiac output
quantity of blood flow from the
heart, peaks at age 25
preference for going to bed late and waking up late
binge drinking associated with...
Unintentional injuries (car crashes, drowning, burns)
Intentional injuries (assaults, domestic violence)
Alcohol poisoning
Unintended pregnancy
Neurological damage
Sexual dysfunction
Children born with FAS
binge drinking- intervention ideas
lower drinking age, fewer liquor stores in college towns, harsher penalties for underage drinking, providing alcohol to a minor, and for DUI's
unmarried romantic partners living
sexually transmitted infection
infection transmitted through sexual contact (chlamydia,
human papilloma virus (HPV), herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), and HIV/AIDS)
college experience- purpose
Exposure to new ideas, beliefs, demands leads to cognitive growth, new thinking patterns
Relativistic thinking
Increased self-understanding
Depends on participation in campus life
*Vocation identity and identity exploration
why do people drop out of college?
30-50% drop out
Personal factors
Preparation, motivation, skills
Financial problems
Institutional factors
Little help, community
Cultural disrespect
stages of vocational exploration (Supers)
fantasy, crystallization, specification, implementation, stabilization, consolidation
unrealistic ideals
developing and planning a tentative vocational goal
firming the vocational goal
training for and obtaining employment
working and confirming career choice
4 ethnic identity statuses
bicultural, assimilated, separated, marginal
high identification with both ethnic group and majority culture
low identification with ethnic group and high identification with majority culture
high identification with ethnic group and low identification with majority culture
low identification with ethnic group and low identification with majority culture
religious development categories
selective adherents, indifferent/disconnected, spiritually open, committed traditionalists, irreligious
selective adherents
identify w/ a particular denomination, but choose what parts of the doctrine they believe, reject other parts and add other beliefs outside the doctrine
little knowledge of opinion on religion
spiritually open
agnostic- believe in some kind of higher power, but do not identify with any particular religion or explanation of that higher power
4 ethnic identity statuses
bicultural, assimilated, separated, marginal
high identification with both ethnic group and majority culture
low identification with ethnic group and high identification with majority culture
high identification with ethnic group and low identification with majority culture
low identification with ethnic group and low identification with majority culture
religious development categories
selective adherents, indifferent/disconnected, spiritually open, committed traditionalists, irreligious
selective adherents
identify w/ a particular denomination, but choose what parts of the doctrine they believe, reject other parts and add other beliefs outside the doctrine (30%)
little knowledge of opinion on religion (30%)
spiritually open
agnostic- believe in some kind of higher power, but do not identify with any particular religion or explanation of that higher power (15%)
committed traditionalists
strong faith- most likely to attend religious services (15%)
actively hostile to religion (10%)
condition in which the lens of the eye loses its ability to focus, making it difficult to see objects up close
age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, specially common in the back and legs -- exercise can reduce these declines
the midlife transition in which fertility declines
extensive knowledge and skills in a specific field- efficient organization of info, deeper analysis, more automatic, notice nuances in problem solving that a novice would not
age-related hearing loss
nearsightedness- trouble seeing things that are far away
vital capacity
maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after a maximum inhalation- declines with age
when a woman’s menstrual periods completely cease
erectile dysfunction
inability to achieve or maintain an erect penis for satisfactory sexual performance
chronically high blood pressure
bones become thin and brittle as a result of rapid calcium depletion
hormone replacement therapy
the use of synthetic or natural female hormones to make up for the decline or lack of natural hormones produced in a woman's body- to relieve the symptoms of menopause
fluid intelligence
information processing abilities such as short-term memory, ability to discern relationships between unrelated stimuli, speed of synthesizing new information
crystallized intelligence
accumulation of culturally based knowledge. Includes vocabulary, information in long-term memory, and logical reasoning abilities
physical changes- aging
wrinkling and sagging of skin, aging spots, hair thins and grays, yellowing of teeth, nails become discolored, thick and brittle
causes of menopause
during a period called perimenopause (10 yr period prior) the production of estrogen and progesterone steadily declines, resulting in the end of monthly ovulation and menstruation
symptoms of menopause
Hot Flashes, Night Sweats
Vaginal Dryness, Painful Intercourse
Sleep Disturbances
Mood Disturbances**
Urinary incontinence**
treatments for menopause
hormone replacement therapy
osteoporosis risk factors
being an older caucasian or asian woman (can't control), low estrogen, low testosterone, anorexia, low lifetime diet in calcium and vitamin d, steroids or anticonvulsants, inactive lifestyle, smoking, excessive alcohol use
osteoporosis symptoms
Back pain, caused by a fractured or collapsed vertebra
Loss of height over time
A stooped posture
A bone fracture that occurs much more easily than expected
osteoporosis treatment
the only thoroughly effective treatment is prevention
factors predicting different health outcomes in middle adulthood
Behavioral Influences
Socioeconomic Status
Race/ Ethnicity
Stress - accelerates aging
The damage that occurs when perceived environmental demands exceed a person’s capacity to cope with them- affects health both short-term and long-term, and chronic stress is implicated in many age-related disease states
role of expertise
Middle adulthood marks an increase in competencies shown in solving problems effectively in a chosen vocational field
perpetuating one’s influence on the generation that follows
I feel as though I have made a difference to many people
I have made and created things that have had an impact on other people
I think that I will be remembered for a long time after I die
I have important skills that I try to teach others
I have made many commitments to many different kinds of people, groups and activities in my life
People come to me for advice
Other people say that I am a very productive person
mid-life crisis
Present in some life events models, the idea that middle adulthood is marked by increased anxiety, unhappiness, and a critical reappraisal of one’s life.
mid-life crisis characterized by...
focus on the finite nature of life.
realize they will not live forever.
concentrate on the present.
begin to question some of their fundamental assumptions.
experience their first signs of aging.
begin to doubt the value of their accomplishments.
confront the fact that they will not be able to accomplish all their aims before they die.
sandwich generation
middle adulthood: taking care of one's children as well as one's aging parents
caregiver burnout
happens frequently with adults and their aging parents- feeling unable to attend to the ever growing needs of one's parents or parents-in-law
normative crisis model
Views psychosocial development in terms of fairly universal stages, tied to a sequence of age-related crises.
life events model
Suggests that timing of particular events, rather than age per se, determines course of psychosocial development
boomerang children
individuals who move back in with their parents after college
reasons children boomerang
Men are more likely to do it than women.
Unable to find a job.
Difficulty making ends meet.
People are marrying at later ages.
Parents' reactions are both positive and negative
changes associated w/ parenting
Dealing with adolescence
“Letting Go”
“Sandwich” generation
Empty nest
Parenting grown children
Becoming a grandparent!
pros of parenting
giving/receiving love and attention, greater meaning to life, becoming less selfish, learning to sacrifice, satisfaction of watching children grow, less fear of your own death
cons of parenting
loss of freedom, restriction of choices, not enough time for family and work, less time with partner, worries over child's health and safety, fear that children will turn out unhappy
well being in adulthood: components of
self acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy. U shaped curve of well being, starts out high, dips and comes back up in adulthood.
holding a positive attitude toward oneself and one's past life. (component of adult well being)
positive relations w/ people
having warm, satisfying, trusting relationships with others and concern and empathy for others.
(component of adult well being)
being self-determined, independent, and resistant to social pressures.
(component of adult well being)
empty nest syndrome
Parents experience feelings of unhappiness, worry, loneliness, and depression resulting from their children's departure from home.
More of a myth than a reality
The real stressor may be the refilling of the nest by grown children returning home.
benefits of children leaving home
Parents can work harder.
More time alone.
House stays cleaner.
Phone doesn't ring so much
Prejudice or discrimination against a person based on age
how is ageism expressed?
Negative attitudes about older people, especially about competence and attractiveness.
Job discrimination
Identical behavior by an older person and a younger person is interpreted differently.
People talk baby talk to persons in nursing homes.
Most negative views are based on misinformation about older people
primary aging
physical, unpreventable again
secondary aging
again caused by bodily misuse and abuse
The study of the aged and the process of aging
functional age
age that indicates the actual
competence and performance of older adults; may be higher or lower than chronological age
chronological age
how many years a person has lived
progressive thickening of the lens of the eye that causes vision to become cloudy, opaque, and distorted
Programmed senescence
genes are turned off and on systematically w/ aging - some proof in twin studies
(genetic programming theory)
Endocrine theory
hormones are being turned off
(genetic programming theory)
Immunological theory
the immune system changes
(genetic programming theory)
Evolutionary theory
death process begins after we are unable to procreate
(genetic programming theory)
Wear-and-tear theory
living bodies get weaker just as with use a knife's edge becomes dulled
(variable rate theory)
Free-radical theory
accumulation of free radicals over time
(variable rate theory)
Rate-of-living theory
the more strain over time, the more aging
(variable rate theory)
Autoimmune theory
immune system gets confused and starts attacking itself
(variable rate theory)
genetic programming theories
age is a result of inevitable change written into a person's genetic code
variable rate theories
biological aging as a result of processes that vary from person to person and are influenced by both the internal and the external environment
age-related macular degeneration
results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the macula) because of damage to the retina
eye disease in which the optic nerve is permanently damaged in a characteristic pattern
a serious loss of global cognitive ability in a previously unimpaired person, beyond what might be expected from normal aging
Alzheimer's disease
an irreversible, progressive brain disease that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually even the ability to carry out the simplest tasks
Parkinson's disease
a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease result from the death of dopamine-generating cells- early on: slowness, rigidity, shakiness, problems with walking; cognitive and behavioural problems may arise later on
changes in intelligence
decrease in fluid intelligence (processing speed, digit span, recognizing new relationships, multitasking)
less cognitive decline if...
Good health
Higher SES
Continued education
Involvement in an intellectually stimulating environment
A flexible personality
Being married (to a bright spouse)
Feeling satisfied with one’s accomplishments in earlier periods of late adulthood
disengagement theory
a quieting of the mind and the soul- society expects your to withdrawal, and if you do, you will be happy (obviously not true)
activity theory
stay as active as possible, staying connected socially- continuity of activeness helps you maintain your identity (over simplistic theory, hereditary health problems occur)
continuity theory
there are things about me that are never going to change w/ age, but I know and accept that I will no longer be able to do certain things (adaptive)
selective optimization w/ compensation
I need to realize that some of my cognitive abilities are inevitably declining, so I need to focus on the abilities that I still have- engage in and draw meaning from them
5 factors in the model of personality
openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
Shallow, simple, unintelligent - Artistic, clever, curious
Careless, disorderly, forgetful - Cautious, dependable, deliberate
Quiet, reserved, shy - Active, assertive, dominant
Cold, cruel, unfriendly - Affectionate, cooperative, friendly
Calm, contented, unemotional - Anxious, emotional, moody
Identity vs. identity confusion
Develop a secure and coherent
identity- adolescence (Erickson)
Intimacy vs. isolation
Establish a committed, long-term
love relationship - emerging adulthood (Erickson)
Generativity vs. stagnation
Care for others and contribute to
well-being of the young - middle adulthood (Erickson)
Ego integrity vs. dispair
Evaluate lifetime, accept it as it is- late adulthood (Erickson)
Factors: retirement
Workers may be burned out after working all their lives.
Jobs can be frustrating and tension-filled.
Health may decline.
Incentives are offered by their company to retire early.
Desire to travel and see more of family
retirement stages
Reorientation is the stage where retirees reconsider their options and become engaged in new, more fulfilling activities
A retirement routine stage occurs when retirees come to grips with the realities of retirement and feel fulfilled in this new phase of life.
The final stage is the process of termination where the retiree either goes back to work or health deteriorates so badly that the person can no longer function independently.
successful retirement
plan ahead financially, consider tapering off from work gradually, explore your interests before you retire, plan to volunteer your time
hospice care
end of life care that emphasizes the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of dying persons and
their families
palliative care
end of life care focused on comfort care and relieving pain, rather than on treatment
active euthanasia
death induced deliberately (of a person who is suffering from an incurable disease or severe disability)
experience of losing a loved one
intense psychological response that often accompanies bereavement
advance directive
person’s written and oral
instructions concerning end-of-life care
life review
according to Robert Butler, the process in late adulthood when people reflect on the life they have lived and come to an acceptance of it
passive euthanasia
withholding of available treatments, allowing the person to die
least death anxiety among those who...
have a well-developed personal philosophy of death, or spirituality
complicated grief
enduring despair (happens w/ occurrence of sudden death, suicide, or to a person w/ ptsd)
disenfranchised grief
socially ambiguous grief- not allowed to grief openly for that loss (ex. death of a mistress)
facing death: adolescents/young adults
Avoid thoughts of death.
Death of others is difficult emotionally. Imminent death elicits intense emotions.
facing death: midlife
Aware that half of life is gone.
Shift in time perspective.
Death is more salient.
facing death: older adults
Fear of death is lowest. Regulation of negative emotions. Accept mortality
5 stages of grief
1. Denial
2. Anger
3. Bargaining
4. Depression
5. Acceptance
when a person refuses to believe that they are dying
"it's not fair" "why is this happening to me" Can be felt toward healthy people in general, family members, medical personnel or god
person tries to bargain for more time, usually w/ god or some spiritual entity- "I promise to clean up my act if you'll just give me one more year..."
due to steadily worsening condition, person realizes that death is growing nearer and there is little that can be done
usually accompanied by the desire to be w/ only the few people most valued- may be a feeling of peace or little feeling at all